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For a complete removal of nitrogenous compounds (NO3-N and NO2-N), denitrification conditions were provided in a laboratory-scale glass column reactor with an empty volume of 500 ml filled with elemental sulfur (0.5–1 mm) and limestone (0.5–1 mm) in ratios of 2/3 and 1/3, respectively. The inoculum was obtained from the first anoxic tank of a five-stage Bardenpho process. The reactor was supplemented with methanol during mixotrophic denitrification conditions. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was calculated considering the empty bed volume (Table 1).

Table 1

Operation conditions used in FBCR

StagesPeriodDaysBromate feed (μg/L)NO3-N feed (mg/L)HRT (h)Methanol feed (mg/L)a
Start-up 0–10 – 45 10.1 – 
Autotropic 10–60 500 45 10.1 – 
Mixotrophic 60–94 500 45 10.1 75 (29.5) 
StagesPeriodDaysBromate feed (μg/L)NO3-N feed (mg/L)HRT (h)Methanol feed (mg/L)a
Start-up 0–10 – 45 10.1 – 
Autotropic 10–60 500 45 10.1 – 
Mixotrophic 60–94 500 45 10.1 75 (29.5) 

aValue in parentheses represents the methanol concentration as dissolved organic carbon (DOC).

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