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The assessment of ecological sustainable development in a watershed is influenced by a wide range of issues within national and international settings, which may become complex when dealing with spatiotemporal and integrated issues. The framework for water ecological management and its influences in a watershed is shown in Table 3. Based on the analyzing and modeling of actual and future availability and demands of watershed ecology, the optimal and sustainable management strategies of aquatic ecology by virtue of operative optimal control of the technical system are selected. Because of the inherent uncertainty in the future and the epistemic uncertainty of data and models, specific assessment approaches and planning strategies are required. The implementation of the BMPs for watershed ecology may have multiple benefits. Ecological sustainable assessment has been used to reduce or eliminate the costs resultant from pollution, which are also adaptive approaches for controlling and mitigating pollution from diffuse sources.

Table 3

Watershed ecology management influencing factors technical framework

Ecological management objectivesGovernance measuresCorrelation of indexes
Development of Restoration Watershed Ecology Watershed strategy regulation Coupling 
General rules of consideration Coupling 
Responsibility definition Coupling 
Pollution treatment plan Coupling 
Water buffer area and ecology reserve program Coupling 
Nutrient management Coupling 
Prohibition action tax Coupling 
Government investment grants Coupling 
Ecological management objectivesGovernance measuresCorrelation of indexes
Development of Restoration Watershed Ecology Watershed strategy regulation Coupling 
General rules of consideration Coupling 
Responsibility definition Coupling 
Pollution treatment plan Coupling 
Water buffer area and ecology reserve program Coupling 
Nutrient management Coupling 
Prohibition action tax Coupling 
Government investment grants Coupling 

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