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Results of the analyses carried out for organic matter and suspended solids at the effluent of the MBR are given in graphical form in Figures 4 and 5. A summary of the results and the standards and guidelines used for toilet flushing with treated grey water around the world are presented in Table 3. The results obtained reveal that even the maximum concentrations of pollutants at the effluent of the treatment system fit with the standards used for grey water reuse in toilet reservoirs for both physicochemical parameters and microbiological indicators.
Figure 4

Organic matter concentrations in treated grey water.

Figure 4

Organic matter concentrations in treated grey water.

Figure 5

Suspended solids concentration in treated grey water.

Figure 5

Suspended solids concentration in treated grey water.

Table 3

Treated grey water quality and the standards and guidelines for toilet flushing

   Standards for toilet flushing
Treated grey water quality
Australia
  
UnitMinMaxMeannaQLDbVICcWAdNSWeGERfWHOg
COD mg/L <30 <30 <30  Not permitted     
BOD mg/L 10 10 20 10 
TSS mg/L 10 10 30  10 
VSS mg/L      
TKN mg/L 0.56 2.32 1.22      
NH4-N mg/L 0.2 0.09      
TP mg/L 0.57 1.39 0.97      
PO4-P mg/L 0.21 0.81 0.51      
pH      6.5–8.5 6.5–8.5    
Turbidity NTU        
Cl mg/L     0.2–1.0 0.2–1.0  <1  
Total coliform cfu/100 mL       10 10 
Fecal coliform cfu/100 mL         
E. coli cfu/100 mL    10   
Enterococcus cfu/100 mL         
   Standards for toilet flushing
Treated grey water quality
Australia
  
UnitMinMaxMeannaQLDbVICcWAdNSWeGERfWHOg
COD mg/L <30 <30 <30  Not permitted     
BOD mg/L 10 10 20 10 
TSS mg/L 10 10 30  10 
VSS mg/L      
TKN mg/L 0.56 2.32 1.22      
NH4-N mg/L 0.2 0.09      
TP mg/L 0.57 1.39 0.97      
PO4-P mg/L 0.21 0.81 0.51      
pH      6.5–8.5 6.5–8.5    
Turbidity NTU        
Cl mg/L     0.2–1.0 0.2–1.0  <1  
Total coliform cfu/100 mL       10 10 
Fecal coliform cfu/100 mL         
E. coli cfu/100 mL    10   
Enterococcus cfu/100 mL         

an: Number of samples.

bQueensland (Queensland Government 2011).

cVictoria (EPA Victoria 2013).

dWestern Australia (Government of Western Australia 2010).

eNew South Wales (New South Wales Government 2008).

fGermany (Nolde 1996).

gWorld Health Organization (WHO 2006).

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