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All the trials were replicated five times. Reported data represented the mean values obtained from five individual trials, with each of these values obtained from duplicated samples. Data were subjected to analysis using the Microsoft Excel program (Redmond, Washington, DC, USA). Significant differences in plate count data were established by the least significant difference at the 5% level of significance. For other data mean ± SD values are presented in Tables 1 and 4.

Table 1

Comparison of bacteriological quality of raw water (pond, river and lake) and MOSP treated water followed by filtration, with standard value

 Raw water
MOSP treatment followed by sari filtered watera
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration
  
PondRiverLakePondRiverLakePondRiverLake
Bacteriological quality indicatorsAverage bacterial population (log CFU/ml)No. of positive/ No. of sample testedNo. of positive/ No. of sample testedUS EPA Std for drinking waterBSTI Standard
Aerobic bacterial count 4.2 3.6 5.4 1.0a 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 TT3 1,000 
Total coliform count 3.4 3.7 4.1 2/5 3/5 3/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
E. coli 2.9 4.3 5.4 1/5 1/5 2/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
E. coli O157:H7 0.8 4.7 4.4 ND/5 2/5 3/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
Salmonella spp. ND 3.8 4.7 ND/5 2/5 1/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
Vibrio spp. ND 3.6 5.4 ND/5 1/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
 Raw water
MOSP treatment followed by sari filtered watera
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration
  
PondRiverLakePondRiverLakePondRiverLake
Bacteriological quality indicatorsAverage bacterial population (log CFU/ml)No. of positive/ No. of sample testedNo. of positive/ No. of sample testedUS EPA Std for drinking waterBSTI Standard
Aerobic bacterial count 4.2 3.6 5.4 1.0a 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 TT3 1,000 
Total coliform count 3.4 3.7 4.1 2/5 3/5 3/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
E. coli 2.9 4.3 5.4 1/5 1/5 2/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
E. coli O157:H7 0.8 4.7 4.4 ND/5 2/5 3/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
Salmonella spp. ND 3.8 4.7 ND/5 2/5 1/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 
Vibrio spp. ND 3.6 5.4 ND/5 1/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 NR NR 

aApproximately 1.0 log CFU/mL present in the sample tested; Treatment technique (TT3) – a required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water; ND = below the detection limit. Detection limit: <1.0 cfu/mL; NR = not recommended.

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