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Furthermore, in order to treat river/lake or pond water for drinking purposes, removal of high turbidity, bad taste and odor, and appearance are some of the main challenges and must be removed before being used for drinking purposes. One of the cheapest ways of removing turbidity is by filtering the turbid water with cotton sari clothes. These fabrics are cheap and readily available, which make them perfect materials for water treatment in rural areas. The turbidity of river/lake/pond water and sari filtered and/or bio-sand filtered water is presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Comparison of turbidity value of raw water and MOSP treated water followed by filtration

Treatment conditionsTurbidity value (NTU)aUS EPA Std turbidity value (NTU) for drinking waterBSTI Standard turbidity value (NTU) for drinking water
Control (non-treated) 54.0–59.0 0.5–1.00 5.0 
Sari filtration (eight layer) 38.0–42.0   
Sari filtration followed by MOSP treatment 30.0–35.0   
MOSP treated water 26.0–30.0   
MOSP treated followed by Sari filtration 20.0–25.0   
Bio-sand filtration only 10.9–14.4   
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration 0.9–4.1   
Treatment conditionsTurbidity value (NTU)aUS EPA Std turbidity value (NTU) for drinking waterBSTI Standard turbidity value (NTU) for drinking water
Control (non-treated) 54.0–59.0 0.5–1.00 5.0 
Sari filtration (eight layer) 38.0–42.0   
Sari filtration followed by MOSP treatment 30.0–35.0   
MOSP treated water 26.0–30.0   
MOSP treated followed by Sari filtration 20.0–25.0   
Bio-sand filtration only 10.9–14.4   
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration 0.9–4.1   

aAverage value range of raw water from pond, river and lake.

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