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A household scale filtration system was constructed as shown in Figure 6, and set up in the laboratory. MOSP treatment followed by filtration was carried out to evaluate the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of the filtered water. Flocculation of impurities present in turbid water caused by Moringa seed powder is an effective approach for a reduction in turbidity. The results revealed that the turbidity values were reduced significantly from 183.7 ± 0.6 to 8.2 ± 0.1 NTU. It was also observed that most of the larger flocs settled faster with 0.01% MOSP and reduction of turbidity to 4.1 ± 0.2 NTU was observed after bio-sand filtration water. Similar findings were reported by other researchers (Yongabi et al. 2011; Mumuni & Elizabeth 2013). The MOSP treatment alone reduced the turbidity to 95.55% and additional reductions of 2.5% were obtained by bio-sand filtration (Table 2). Similarly, bacteriological data showed that the MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration revealed a 99.94 and 99.97% reduction of total coliforms and E. coli, respectively (Table 1), which was statistically significant. This is an indication that MOSP treatment followed by the bio-sand filtration method had the advantage of reducing microbial load better than the single treatment (Sobsey & Stauber 2006). The combined method gave the lowest coliform count per 100 mL of the samples as compared to the MOSP treatment method. Irrespective of sources and types of water, when MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration water was stored at room temperature for 6 months, no bacteria was detected throughout the study (Table 4). This finding suggested that MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtration could be useful at the household level.
Table 4

Bacteriological quality of raw and treated (pond, river and lake) water stored for 6 months at ambient temperature

 Raw water stored for 6 months
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtered water stored for 6 months
PondRiverLakePondRiverLake
Bacteriological quality parameterAverage bacterial population (log CFU/mL)No. of positive/No. of sample tested
Aerobic bacterial count 4.1 ± 1.2 3.56 ± 1.3 5.38 ± 0.5 *ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Total coliform 3.3 ± 0.9 3.68 ± 0.2 4.11 ± 0.3 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Escherichia coli 2.9 ± 0.5 4.30 ± 0.1 5.36 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Escherichia coli O157:H7 0.83 ± 0.2 4.68 ± 0.1 4.44 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Salmonella sp. ND 3.84 ± 0.1 4.70 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Vibrio sp. ND 3.56 ± 0.1 5.38 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
 Raw water stored for 6 months
MOSP treatment followed by bio-sand filtered water stored for 6 months
PondRiverLakePondRiverLake
Bacteriological quality parameterAverage bacterial population (log CFU/mL)No. of positive/No. of sample tested
Aerobic bacterial count 4.1 ± 1.2 3.56 ± 1.3 5.38 ± 0.5 *ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Total coliform 3.3 ± 0.9 3.68 ± 0.2 4.11 ± 0.3 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Escherichia coli 2.9 ± 0.5 4.30 ± 0.1 5.36 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Escherichia coli O157:H7 0.83 ± 0.2 4.68 ± 0.1 4.44 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Salmonella sp. ND 3.84 ± 0.1 4.70 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 
Vibrio sp. ND 3.56 ± 0.1 5.38 ± 0.1 ND/5 ND/5 ND/5 

*ND = not detected.

Figure 6

Household scale treatment device.

Figure 6

Household scale treatment device.

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