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The set experimental protocols and the results for the membrane blocking coefficient obtained in the constant-pressure mode are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Effect of membrane characteristics, water recovery, and cleaning methods on the membrane blocking coefficient (r) in the constant-pressure operating mode

Membrane materialCleaning frequencyTMP (kPa)Backwashing pressure (kPa)Forward flushing pressure (kPa)water recovery (Rw)r (s/m2)
PSf 60 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 3,737 
PSf 60 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 100% 4,531 
PSf 30 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 4,552 
PAN 30 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 2,167 
Cleaning type and cleaning duration 
 Protocol 1: backwashing 90 s + forward flushing 30 s 6,498 
 Protocol 2: forward flushing 30 s + backwashing 90 s + forward flushing 30 s 6,637 
 Protocol 3: backwashing 30 s 6,791 
 Protocol 4: forward flushing 30 s 7,142 
Membrane materialCleaning frequencyTMP (kPa)Backwashing pressure (kPa)Forward flushing pressure (kPa)water recovery (Rw)r (s/m2)
PSf 60 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 3,737 
PSf 60 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 100% 4,531 
PSf 30 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 4,552 
PAN 30 min 30 50 (90 s) 16 (30 s) 80% 2,167 
Cleaning type and cleaning duration 
 Protocol 1: backwashing 90 s + forward flushing 30 s 6,498 
 Protocol 2: forward flushing 30 s + backwashing 90 s + forward flushing 30 s 6,637 
 Protocol 3: backwashing 30 s 6,791 
 Protocol 4: forward flushing 30 s 7,142 

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