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The two models above were employed to fit the breakthrough data of TCP, and are shown in Figures S5–S6 (available online). Fitting parameters are listed in Table 3. High correlation coefficients (R2) were obtained for both the models, as shown in Table 3, thus showing an agreement between the experimental data and the mathematical models. For both the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, their parameters kTh and kYN (Table 3) show an increasing trend, with the flow rate increasing from 3 to 10 mL·min−1, which explains the result that the breakthrough and saturation occurred faster at a higher flow rate (Figure 4(a)). It was also noted that the values of kTh increase while those of q0 decrease with an increase in the influent TCP concentration for the Thomas model. The kYN values show an increase with increasing influent TCP concentration due to the increased driving force of mass transfer in the liquid film (Setshedi et al. 2015). This explained the result that the breakthrough curves became steeper with a higher influent concentration (Figure 4(b)). In addition, for both the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, their parameters kTh and kYN (Table 3) show a decreasing trend with increasing column height (Figure 4(c)).

Table 3

Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models' parameters for TCP adsorption on G

Parameters
Thomas model
Yoon-Nelson model
H (cm)C0 (mg·L−1)V (mL·min−1)kTh (L·mg−1·min−1)q0 (mg·g−1)R2kYN (min−1)τ (min)R2
0.009 34.4 0.9721 0.018 242.88 0.9717 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
10 0.0188 16.2 0.9904 0.0375 65.27 0.9902 
0.0181 26.3 0.9824 0.018 188.25 0.9821 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
0.0127 14.8 0.9814 0.035 69.20 0.9809 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
0.0127 13.1 0.9952 0.0254 125.39 0.9951 
0.0094 12.5 0.9510 0.0187 180.45 0.9503 
Parameters
Thomas model
Yoon-Nelson model
H (cm)C0 (mg·L−1)V (mL·min−1)kTh (L·mg−1·min−1)q0 (mg·g−1)R2kYN (min−1)τ (min)R2
0.009 34.4 0.9721 0.018 242.88 0.9717 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
10 0.0188 16.2 0.9904 0.0375 65.27 0.9902 
0.0181 26.3 0.9824 0.018 188.25 0.9821 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
0.0127 14.8 0.9814 0.035 69.20 0.9809 
0.0135 21.9 0.9564 0.027 94.46 0.9554 
0.0127 13.1 0.9952 0.0254 125.39 0.9951 
0.0094 12.5 0.9510 0.0187 180.45 0.9503 

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