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The treatment of effluent in the first and second reactor reduced the SDS and COD levels to 38 ± 2% and 35 ± 2% respectively. Therefore, the third stage (immobilized cells packed) reactor received the synthetic wastewater with the concentration of 1.488 g L−1 (5.15 mM), surfactants become more bioavailable in this phase than supra-CMC level. The increasing surfactant concentration from sub- to supra-CMCs in wastewater significantly decreases primary biodegradation and foam degradation, which could be due to the limited bioavailability of surfactants in the micelle phase as compared to the monomeric surfactants (Zhang et al. 1999). Hence, the immobilized system could exhibit a better efficiency than when it was used as a single system for the treatment of the wastewater. Three-stage reactor could bring a 99.8 ± 0.1% at 99 ± 0.9% SDS removal and COD, respectively. Performance of the three-stage packed bed reactor was challenged continuously with fresh synthetic wastewater for 108 h. The half-life period of the reactor was observed as 72 h as depicted in Table 3. The variation in pH during the process was also analyzed. It was found oxidation reaction caused the pH to decrease and after 72 h pH become 6.5. But our selected strain was found capable of degrading SDS in the pH 6.5.

Table 3

Performance and water treatment efficiency of the three-stage packed bed reactor for 108 h at a flow rate of 5 mL/h

Treatment time point in hPercentage of SDS remainingPercentage of COD
18 100 ± 0.01 100 ± 0.03 
36 99 ± 0.5 98 ± 0.25 
54 86 ± 0.2 82 ± 0.41 
72 48 ± 0.4 40 ± 1 
90 38 ± 1.2 28 ± 0.9 
108 27 ± 1.8 22 ± 1.2 
Treatment time point in hPercentage of SDS remainingPercentage of COD
18 100 ± 0.01 100 ± 0.03 
36 99 ± 0.5 98 ± 0.25 
54 86 ± 0.2 82 ± 0.41 
72 48 ± 0.4 40 ± 1 
90 38 ± 1.2 28 ± 0.9 
108 27 ± 1.8 22 ± 1.2 

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