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Table 1 shows the level of PAH in water at different sites in the research areas. The level of the ∑16PAHs ranged from 4,076 (J) to 29,455 ng/L (O), with a mean of 17,212 ng/L in surface water. The most serious pollution site was at O, which was located at the Youyi River because the river received large quantities of waste water from the industrial activities and residential sources. At sites P and T (Nan River), the total PAH concentration was also high because of the discharge of a large amount of domestic waste into the Nan River. A high total PAH concentration was also found at Pipa Lake (M) located near Purple Mountain (a famous scenic spot in Nanjing). In the Yangtze River, the total PAH level was relatively low (less than the average value) perhaps because of its greater water mobility. The situation of the PAH pollution in urban areas of Nanjing was compared with other rivers or areas (Table 2). The PAH concentrations in surface water from the urban areas of Nanjing were lower than those in other regions, such as the Daqing surface water (Xiao et al. 2015) and Minjiang River (Zhang et al. 2004), but higher than those in Jiulong, Taizi, Raba, Nile, Mississippi, and Yellow Rivers (Maskaoui et al. 2002; Zhang et al. 2007; Badawy & Emababy 2010; Nagy et al. 2013b; Song et al. 2013; Zhao et al. 2015). Our research suggested that the water PAH from the urban areas of Nanjing were in the high pollution level.

Table 1

Concentrations of PAH (ng L−1) in surface water of Nanjing urban area, China (N = 20)

CompoundsML
YR
XL
NR
EWPQLYLPLWRYYRQWPYQLQR
ababcdeabab
Nap 6,181 6,496 6,334 7,696 4,649 3,261 5,011 8,192 1,428 9,079 10,677 4,230 10,155 9,525 8,995 12,495 10,407 4,144 6,552 9,533 
Acy ND 358 523 ND 362 347 346 450 141 1,001 1,164 ND 733 546 846 649 ND 224 543 825 
Ace 549 902 795 1,000 747 313 637 878 99 3,224 3,840 713 2,002 1,413 2,850 1,565 3,181 355 1,632 2,480 
Fl 838 1,937 1,116 2,080 1,342 855 1,345 1,951 186 4,181 4,047 1,331 3,375 2,430 4,904 2,656 5,605 776 2,939 3,719 
Phe 1,503 3,595 1,928 4,022 2,028 2,630 3,236 3,446 926 7,101 6,542 2,018 5,111 4,244 7,603 3,594 8,668 2,454 5,679 5,260 
Ant 389 219 545 273 498 744 453 309 238 429 425 319 355 276 482 239 530 205 368 409 
Flu 473 305 842 400 698 894 600 372 355 452 361 399 304 300 409 232 457 192 351 293 
Pyr 396 259 793 338 645 833 519 335 344 309 240 351 192 217 270 166 326 138 222 222 
BaA 206 16 85 31 94 103 51 29 45 27 93 32 25 60 36 19 70 18 26 46 
Chr 138 18 91 32 99 106 52 30 54 56 65 34 55 64 111 65 75 38 58 49 
BbF 77 17 78 29 86 87 47 28 49 58 91 31 37 ND 54 39 67 27 30 46 
BkF 68 18 81 25 87 92 49 26 54 43 72 29 36 ND 11 16 25 18 12 45 
BaP 55 12 73 25 76 88 42 25 46 13 69 27 ND 20 19 26 11 22 
IcdP 53 11 57 19 61 69 32 18 34 21 15 ND ND 10 14 
DahA 67 10 64 18 66 77 34 36 32 16 18 10 
BghiP 32 11 62 20 63 74 32 19 41 26 27 22 ND ND 15 14 ND 16 
ΣPAHs 11,025 14,185 13,468 16,007 11,600 10,572 12,485 16,117 4,076 26,038 27,733 9,575 22,399 19,087 26,624 21,760 29,455 8,618 18,431 22,981 
CompoundsML
YR
XL
NR
EWPQLYLPLWRYYRQWPYQLQR
ababcdeabab
Nap 6,181 6,496 6,334 7,696 4,649 3,261 5,011 8,192 1,428 9,079 10,677 4,230 10,155 9,525 8,995 12,495 10,407 4,144 6,552 9,533 
Acy ND 358 523 ND 362 347 346 450 141 1,001 1,164 ND 733 546 846 649 ND 224 543 825 
Ace 549 902 795 1,000 747 313 637 878 99 3,224 3,840 713 2,002 1,413 2,850 1,565 3,181 355 1,632 2,480 
Fl 838 1,937 1,116 2,080 1,342 855 1,345 1,951 186 4,181 4,047 1,331 3,375 2,430 4,904 2,656 5,605 776 2,939 3,719 
Phe 1,503 3,595 1,928 4,022 2,028 2,630 3,236 3,446 926 7,101 6,542 2,018 5,111 4,244 7,603 3,594 8,668 2,454 5,679 5,260 
Ant 389 219 545 273 498 744 453 309 238 429 425 319 355 276 482 239 530 205 368 409 
Flu 473 305 842 400 698 894 600 372 355 452 361 399 304 300 409 232 457 192 351 293 
Pyr 396 259 793 338 645 833 519 335 344 309 240 351 192 217 270 166 326 138 222 222 
BaA 206 16 85 31 94 103 51 29 45 27 93 32 25 60 36 19 70 18 26 46 
Chr 138 18 91 32 99 106 52 30 54 56 65 34 55 64 111 65 75 38 58 49 
BbF 77 17 78 29 86 87 47 28 49 58 91 31 37 ND 54 39 67 27 30 46 
BkF 68 18 81 25 87 92 49 26 54 43 72 29 36 ND 11 16 25 18 12 45 
BaP 55 12 73 25 76 88 42 25 46 13 69 27 ND 20 19 26 11 22 
IcdP 53 11 57 19 61 69 32 18 34 21 15 ND ND 10 14 
DahA 67 10 64 18 66 77 34 36 32 16 18 10 
BghiP 32 11 62 20 63 74 32 19 41 26 27 22 ND ND 15 14 ND 16 
ΣPAHs 11,025 14,185 13,468 16,007 11,600 10,572 12,485 16,117 4,076 26,038 27,733 9,575 22,399 19,087 26,624 21,760 29,455 8,618 18,431 22,981 

Note: naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (Acy), acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BP); ND denotes not detected; Mochou Lake (ML), Yangtze River (YR), Xuanwu Lake (XL), The East Water Park (EWP), Qianhu Lake (QL), Yueya Lake (YL), Pipa Lake (PL), Wukesong Reservoir (WR), Youyi River (YYR), Nan River (NR), Qiqiaowen Wetland Park (QWP), Yanque Lake (YQL), Qinhuai River (QR).

Table 2

Concentrations of PAHs in surface water around the world

LocationRange (ng/L)MeanReference
Jiulong River, China 6,960–26,920 17,050 Maskaoui et al. (2002)  
Minjiang River, China 9,900–474,000 72,400 Zhang et al. (2004)  
Yellow River, China 548–2,598 1,375 Zhao et al. (2015)  
Taizi River, China 455–1,380 907 (dry season) Song et al. (2013)  
Taizi River, China 1,802–5,869 3,235 (wet season) Song et al. (2013)  
Taizi River, China 367–5,795 1,818 (normal season) Song et al. (2013)  
Daqing, China 10,020–5,743,370 1,298,250 Xiao et al. (2015)  
Raba River, Hungary 41–437 111 Nagy et al. (2013b)  
Nile River, Egypt 1,110–4,364 1,878 Badawy & Emababy (2010)  
Mississippi River, USA 62.9–144.7 – Zhang et al. (2007)  
Nanjing 4,076–29,455 17,212 This study 
LocationRange (ng/L)MeanReference
Jiulong River, China 6,960–26,920 17,050 Maskaoui et al. (2002)  
Minjiang River, China 9,900–474,000 72,400 Zhang et al. (2004)  
Yellow River, China 548–2,598 1,375 Zhao et al. (2015)  
Taizi River, China 455–1,380 907 (dry season) Song et al. (2013)  
Taizi River, China 1,802–5,869 3,235 (wet season) Song et al. (2013)  
Taizi River, China 367–5,795 1,818 (normal season) Song et al. (2013)  
Daqing, China 10,020–5,743,370 1,298,250 Xiao et al. (2015)  
Raba River, Hungary 41–437 111 Nagy et al. (2013b)  
Nile River, Egypt 1,110–4,364 1,878 Badawy & Emababy (2010)  
Mississippi River, USA 62.9–144.7 – Zhang et al. (2007)  
Nanjing 4,076–29,455 17,212 This study 

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