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The survey targeted more female respondents (Table 1) because they mostly handle issues related to water and wastewater at the household level in the Ghanaian context. The average age of respondents in the three communities was 40 years or above indicating that our interviewees were household members capable of giving valid and useful information. Ayigya and Bomso have the same average household size of five while in Kentinkrono it is four; meanwhile these household sizes are comparable to the regional figure of four (GSS 2013b). There is a stark difference in the average household income, which is also statistically significant from the ANOVA table (p = 0.00 & F = 8.491) (Table 1). Most households interviewed have household toilet facilities, 57–73%, and the rest use public toilets (Table 1). In addition, most of the household toilet facilities were wet systems (i.e. water closets, 59–68%), which could offer opportunity for greywater reuse by toilet flushing. The majority of respondents (70–90%) had household water supply through in-plumbing (33–47%) and yard taps (37–43%). The per capita water consumption levels contrast significantly (p = 0.00 and F = 11.606) in the ANOVA test; Bomso and Kentinkrono have the lowest and highest consumptions, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1

Profile of households involved in the study

ParametersCommunity and distribution of responses
Items of measurementAyigyaBomsoKentinkrono
Gender of respondents Male, n (%) 11 (37%) 9 (30%) 9 (30%) 
Female, n (%) 19 (63%) 21 (70%) 21 (70%) 
Age of respondents Average (years) 45 ± 15 40 ± 14 46 ± 13 
Household size Average 5 ± 2 5 ± 3 4 ± 1 
Household income* Average (GHS/month) 1,460 ± 431 1,060 ± 460 1,517 ± 507 
Toilet access Household facility, n (%) 19 (63%) 17 (57%) 22 (73%) 
Public facility, n (%) 11 (37%) 13 (43%) 8 (27%) 
Household toilet types Water closet, n (%) 13 (68%) 10 (59%) 15 (68%) 
K/VIP, n (%) 6 (32%) 7 (41%) 7 (32%) 
Water access level In-plumbing, n (%) 13 (43%) 10 (33%) 14 (47%) 
Yard tap, n (%) 12 (40%) 11 (37%) 13 (43%) 
Public standpipe, n (%) 5 (17%) 9 (30%) 3 (10%) 
Water consumptiona,Average (lpcdb124 76 159 
Household water cost* Average (GHS/month) 23 12 26 
Water cost: % of total expenditure** More than 3%, n (%) 5 (17%) 6 (20%) 12 (40%) 
Less than 3%, n (%) 25 (83%) 24 (80%) 18 (60%) 
ParametersCommunity and distribution of responses
Items of measurementAyigyaBomsoKentinkrono
Gender of respondents Male, n (%) 11 (37%) 9 (30%) 9 (30%) 
Female, n (%) 19 (63%) 21 (70%) 21 (70%) 
Age of respondents Average (years) 45 ± 15 40 ± 14 46 ± 13 
Household size Average 5 ± 2 5 ± 3 4 ± 1 
Household income* Average (GHS/month) 1,460 ± 431 1,060 ± 460 1,517 ± 507 
Toilet access Household facility, n (%) 19 (63%) 17 (57%) 22 (73%) 
Public facility, n (%) 11 (37%) 13 (43%) 8 (27%) 
Household toilet types Water closet, n (%) 13 (68%) 10 (59%) 15 (68%) 
K/VIP, n (%) 6 (32%) 7 (41%) 7 (32%) 
Water access level In-plumbing, n (%) 13 (43%) 10 (33%) 14 (47%) 
Yard tap, n (%) 12 (40%) 11 (37%) 13 (43%) 
Public standpipe, n (%) 5 (17%) 9 (30%) 3 (10%) 
Water consumptiona,Average (lpcdb124 76 159 
Household water cost* Average (GHS/month) 23 12 26 
Water cost: % of total expenditure** More than 3%, n (%) 5 (17%) 6 (20%) 12 (40%) 
Less than 3%, n (%) 25 (83%) 24 (80%) 18 (60%) 

GHS1 = US$0.26 (2016); *ANOVA, p < 0.001; **Fisher's test, p > 0.05.

aWater consumption includes all domestic water uses as billed; blitres per capita per day.

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