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The significant reduction in particle size from both processes with increasing temperature when compared with raw SS is made clearer by the D10, D50 and D90 distribution of chars recovered at the three HTC temperature ranges compared to raw SS, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3

D10, D50 and D90 distribution of raw SS and carbonized chars from both HTC processes

Sample descriptionDiameter size (μm)
D10D50D90
Raw SS 17.1 347.4 875.8 
M-HTC 160 °C dried SS char 4.8 52.7 232.2 
M-HTC 180 °C dried SS char 3.9 31.9 88.2 
M-HTC 200 °C dried SS char 2.3 19.8 78.7 
C-HTC 160 °C dried SS char 4.2 44.3 227.3 
C-HTC 180 °C dried SS char 3.5 36.6 129.3 
C-HTC 200 °C dried SS char 3.3 25.2 80.9 
Sample descriptionDiameter size (μm)
D10D50D90
Raw SS 17.1 347.4 875.8 
M-HTC 160 °C dried SS char 4.8 52.7 232.2 
M-HTC 180 °C dried SS char 3.9 31.9 88.2 
M-HTC 200 °C dried SS char 2.3 19.8 78.7 
C-HTC 160 °C dried SS char 4.2 44.3 227.3 
C-HTC 180 °C dried SS char 3.5 36.6 129.3 
C-HTC 200 °C dried SS char 3.3 25.2 80.9 

Where:

D10 – represents the particle size (μm), where 10% of sample particle sizes are less (smaller) than this value and 90% are greater (larger) than this value.

D50 – represents the median particle size (μm), where 50% i.e. half of sample particle sizes are less (smaller) than this value and the other half are greater (larger) than this value.

D90 – represents the particle size (μm), where 90% of sample particle sizes are less (smaller) than this value and 10% are greater (larger) than this value.

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