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The soil geochemical properties and mineral content were evaluated to assess the effects of different water sources used for irrigation on the soil (Table 2). The pH and EC of the soil were significantly different, whereby soil irrigated with water of higher pH and EC resulted in soil with higher pH and EC and vice versa. Irrigation water was observed to affect soil in this present study. The pH of soil irrigated with treated waste water was higher than that of soil irrigated with lake water, while the EC of soil irrigated with treated waste water was observed to be significantly lower than that of soil irrigated with lake water. However, previous research has reported no significant impact of irrigation on the soil (Rusan et al. 2007). The mineral content of the soils irrigated with different water sources were also observed to be correlated with the mineral content of the water used for irrigation. Calcium, magnesium and potassium levels in soil correlated with levels of irrigation water, whereby irrigation water with higher levels of these nutrients resulted in soil with higher levels as well. No correlation was observed between total nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals of the irrigation water and the soil.

Table 2

Effects of the different water sources used for irrigation of guava crops on the soil properties

 TWWLW
Physicochemical parameters 
 pH 5.47 ± 0.03a 5.34 ± 0.04b 
 EC (ppm) 4.19 ± 0.45a 5.67 ± 0.55b 
Macroelements 
 Calcium (mg/l) 440 ± 15a 1294 ± 28b 
 Magnesium (mg/l)) 116 ± 13a 227 ± 22b 
 Potassium (mg/l) 60.1 ± 2.7a 103 ± 3.12b 
 Total nitrogen (mg/l) 0.04 ± 0.01a 0.06 ± 0.02a 
 Phosphorus (mg/l) 137 ± 5a 127 ± 8a 
Heavy metals 
 Nickel, Ni (ppm) 0.06 ± 0.03a 0.09 ± 0.04a 
 Cadmium, Cd (ppm) 0.02 ± 0.02a 0.04 ± 0.03a 
 Chromium, Cr (ppm) 0.03 ± 0.03a 0.05 ± 0.02a 
 Copper, Cu (ppm) 0.98 ± 0.11a 1.07 ± 0.09a 
 Lead, Pb (ppm) 3.66 ± 1.23a 4.13 ± 1.09a 
 Zinc, Zn (ppm) 3.34 ± 0.13a 4.23 ± 0.15b 
Microbiological parameters 
 Faecal coliforms (CFU/100 ml) <10 <10 
E. coli (CFU/100 ml) <10 <10 
 Helminth (eggs/10 l) <10 <10 
 TWWLW
Physicochemical parameters 
 pH 5.47 ± 0.03a 5.34 ± 0.04b 
 EC (ppm) 4.19 ± 0.45a 5.67 ± 0.55b 
Macroelements 
 Calcium (mg/l) 440 ± 15a 1294 ± 28b 
 Magnesium (mg/l)) 116 ± 13a 227 ± 22b 
 Potassium (mg/l) 60.1 ± 2.7a 103 ± 3.12b 
 Total nitrogen (mg/l) 0.04 ± 0.01a 0.06 ± 0.02a 
 Phosphorus (mg/l) 137 ± 5a 127 ± 8a 
Heavy metals 
 Nickel, Ni (ppm) 0.06 ± 0.03a 0.09 ± 0.04a 
 Cadmium, Cd (ppm) 0.02 ± 0.02a 0.04 ± 0.03a 
 Chromium, Cr (ppm) 0.03 ± 0.03a 0.05 ± 0.02a 
 Copper, Cu (ppm) 0.98 ± 0.11a 1.07 ± 0.09a 
 Lead, Pb (ppm) 3.66 ± 1.23a 4.13 ± 1.09a 
 Zinc, Zn (ppm) 3.34 ± 0.13a 4.23 ± 0.15b 
Microbiological parameters 
 Faecal coliforms (CFU/100 ml) <10 <10 
E. coli (CFU/100 ml) <10 <10 
 Helminth (eggs/10 l) <10 <10 

Values followed by different letters within the same column are significantly different (p < 0.05) (n = 9). TWW: treated waste water; LW: lake water.

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