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Amount of urine applied in the system per day was based on drying capacity of the system that was measured during the pilot test. The amount of urine applied per day was 20% less than the drying capacity (as a cautionary approach). During the experiment, no urine was applied during weekends; therefore, daily urine application rate was adjusted, so that the total amount of urine applied in 5 days equaled to the total amount if urine was applied 7 days per week. The amount of drying agent used in a treatment was five times (by weight) of the average daily application rate of urine over the week in that specific treatment (Table 2).

Table 2

System specification for urine drying experiment

TreatmentTemperature for moisture control box (°C)Temperature for urine drying box (°C)Airflow (L/min)Urine application (5 days/week) (mL)Amount of drying agent (ash + lime) (g)Estimated exchange of air volume (times/h)
T1 35 60 250 900 200 
T2 35 60 140 500 30 
T3 35 35 26 95 20 
TreatmentTemperature for moisture control box (°C)Temperature for urine drying box (°C)Airflow (L/min)Urine application (5 days/week) (mL)Amount of drying agent (ash + lime) (g)Estimated exchange of air volume (times/h)
T1 35 60 250 900 200 
T2 35 60 140 500 30 
T3 35 35 26 95 20 

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