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Referring to the Hyogo protocol and recent scientific literature, the urban vulnerability has been defined as being exposure and intrinsic sensitivity, whilst resilience is adaptation and transformability, knowing that the urban ecosystem is composed of some social, economical, environmental and physical components (Walker et al. 2004; Aroua 2012; Boubacar undated). The vulnerability–resilience interface related to the present case study is designated by some relevant criteria and indicators as shown in Tables 1 and 2. Exposure refers to geomorphology, climate and hydrography related criteria, whereas sensitivity refers to urban design, socio-economy and technology related criteria. Adaptation refers to strategy, regulation and action program related criteria. Transformability refers to policy, laws and economy related criteria. Each criterion is defined by three specific indicators.

Table 1

Local vulnerability criteria and indicators over water-related risks

Vulnerability indicators
Exposure
Sensitivity
GeomorphologyClimateHydrographyUrban designSocio-economyTechnology
Topography, pedology, geology, planting shelter (IEG1) Temperature, humidity, winds (IEC1) Surface and underground components of local watershed (IEH1) Land use pattern (ISU1) Population growth, precariousness, (un)employment, poverty, risk perception (ISS1) Water supply, sewage, wastewater management (IST1) 
Geography of the global water cycle, landscape modifications (IEG2) Rainfall regime, extreme events, climate change (IEC2) River morphology (IEH2) Building and infrastructure state, comfort parameters, risk management (ISU2) Local economy (industry, trade) (ISS2) Solid waste management (IST2) 
Geological hazards (IEG3) Local climate-related pathologies (IEC3)  River hydrodynamic (IEH3) Technological risks (ISU3) Financial resources, local public budget, private investments (ISS3) Environment management (IST3) 
Vulnerability indicators
Exposure
Sensitivity
GeomorphologyClimateHydrographyUrban designSocio-economyTechnology
Topography, pedology, geology, planting shelter (IEG1) Temperature, humidity, winds (IEC1) Surface and underground components of local watershed (IEH1) Land use pattern (ISU1) Population growth, precariousness, (un)employment, poverty, risk perception (ISS1) Water supply, sewage, wastewater management (IST1) 
Geography of the global water cycle, landscape modifications (IEG2) Rainfall regime, extreme events, climate change (IEC2) River morphology (IEH2) Building and infrastructure state, comfort parameters, risk management (ISU2) Local economy (industry, trade) (ISS2) Solid waste management (IST2) 
Geological hazards (IEG3) Local climate-related pathologies (IEC3)  River hydrodynamic (IEH3) Technological risks (ISU3) Financial resources, local public budget, private investments (ISS3) Environment management (IST3) 
Table 2

Local resilience criteria and indicators over water-related risks

Resilience indicators
Adaptation
Transformability
StrategyRegulationAction programPolicyLawsEconomy
Water-related risks prevention (IAS1) Water resources management system, water-related prevention, urban planning (IAR1) Warning system (IAA1) Local sustainable development scheme (ITP1) Adaption measures integrated into the water resources scheme (ITL1) Local and international investment opportunities (ITE1) 
Stakeholders’ organizational system, decision making process (IAS2) Hazard study, environmental impact assessment (IAR2) Disaster-related decrees and decision making system (IAA2) Future urban projects (ITP2) Adaption measures integrated into the land use pattern (ITL2) Local material and financial means (ITE2) 
Prerogatives of the municipality, public offices (IAS3) Emergency organization, flood forecasting (IAR3) Emergency services, medical emergency services, public hygiene (IAA3) Sustainability of energy consumption strategy and technology development strategy. Use of scientific innovations (ITP3) Adaption measures integrated into the local development plan (ITL3) Human, environmental, technical and energetic capacities (ITE3) 
Resilience indicators
Adaptation
Transformability
StrategyRegulationAction programPolicyLawsEconomy
Water-related risks prevention (IAS1) Water resources management system, water-related prevention, urban planning (IAR1) Warning system (IAA1) Local sustainable development scheme (ITP1) Adaption measures integrated into the water resources scheme (ITL1) Local and international investment opportunities (ITE1) 
Stakeholders’ organizational system, decision making process (IAS2) Hazard study, environmental impact assessment (IAR2) Disaster-related decrees and decision making system (IAA2) Future urban projects (ITP2) Adaption measures integrated into the land use pattern (ITL2) Local material and financial means (ITE2) 
Prerogatives of the municipality, public offices (IAS3) Emergency organization, flood forecasting (IAR3) Emergency services, medical emergency services, public hygiene (IAA3) Sustainability of energy consumption strategy and technology development strategy. Use of scientific innovations (ITP3) Adaption measures integrated into the local development plan (ITL3) Human, environmental, technical and energetic capacities (ITE3) 

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