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Table 2.

Synopsis of the case studies.

Case studyGuácimo, LimónCoastal communities of Santa Cruz
Location Guácimo in Limón province is in the Caribbean. It has adequate rainfall and covers 576.48 sq·km and has approximately 40,000 people Santa Cruz in Guanacaste province in the North Pacific is very dry. Coastal communities include Flaming, Potrero, Brasilito, Tamarindo and Playa Grande; neighbouring communities include Huacas, Lorena and Villarreal. The population is about 40,000 
Background and context Unplanned expansion of pineapple plantations becoming the world's foremost exporter. Problems: deforestation, erosion and surface/groundwater pollution due to intensive use of agrochemicals. Public institutions have not solved existing problems. ASADAS, development associations and environmental associations have sued pineapple plantations for violating water and environmental laws Coastal areas are a popular tourism destination and tourism has grown in the absence of any integrated sustainability plans taking local vulnerabilities into account. Public agencies have not solved existing problems. ASADAS actively engage in groundwater governance 
Key challenges Coordinated actions by public institutions. Enforcement of environmental and water laws. Overcoming lack of government funding and/or support Coordinated actions by public institutions. Enforcement of environmental and water laws. Overcoming lack of government funding and/or support. Enhancing the figure of the ASADAs 
Case studyGuácimo, LimónCoastal communities of Santa Cruz
Location Guácimo in Limón province is in the Caribbean. It has adequate rainfall and covers 576.48 sq·km and has approximately 40,000 people Santa Cruz in Guanacaste province in the North Pacific is very dry. Coastal communities include Flaming, Potrero, Brasilito, Tamarindo and Playa Grande; neighbouring communities include Huacas, Lorena and Villarreal. The population is about 40,000 
Background and context Unplanned expansion of pineapple plantations becoming the world's foremost exporter. Problems: deforestation, erosion and surface/groundwater pollution due to intensive use of agrochemicals. Public institutions have not solved existing problems. ASADAS, development associations and environmental associations have sued pineapple plantations for violating water and environmental laws Coastal areas are a popular tourism destination and tourism has grown in the absence of any integrated sustainability plans taking local vulnerabilities into account. Public agencies have not solved existing problems. ASADAS actively engage in groundwater governance 
Key challenges Coordinated actions by public institutions. Enforcement of environmental and water laws. Overcoming lack of government funding and/or support Coordinated actions by public institutions. Enforcement of environmental and water laws. Overcoming lack of government funding and/or support. Enhancing the figure of the ASADAs 
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