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Table 2.

Explanation of evaluation indicators for water security.

Evaluation indicatorsCalculation methodsIndicator direction
Water resources per capita (X1101) Total water resources/total population Positive 
Precipitation (X1102) Obtained from the water resources bulletin Positive 
Water production modulus (X1103) Total water resources/total land area Positive 
Water resources utilization rate (X1104) Total water use/total water resources Negative 
River water quality satisfaction rate (X1201) Percentage of monitoring river sections with water quality better than Class III (including Class III)a Positive 
Fertilizer use per unit irrigated farmland area (X1202) Fertilizer use/total irrigated farmland area Negative 
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in water (X1203) COD discharge amount/total water resources Negative 
Ammonia-nitrogen level in water (X1204) Ammonia-nitrogen discharge amount/total water resources Negative 
Run-off depth (X1301) The depth of the water obtained by spreading the total run-off evenly over the whole basin area within a certain period Positive 
Ecological water requirement satisfaction rate (X1302) Ecological water usage/total water resources Positive 
Wetland area proportion (X1303) Wetland area/total land area Positive 
Forest coverage (X1304) Forested land area/total land area Positive 
Water supply pipe length per capita (X2101) Urban water supply pipe length/total urban population Positive 
Water access rate (X2102) Population with access to tap water/total population Positive 
Area proportion of crop affected by drought (X2103) Crop area affected by drought/total farmland area Negative 
Population affected by drought (X2104) Population affected by drought/total population Negative 
Effective irrigation area proportion (X2105) Effective irrigated farmland area/total farmland area Positive 
Total water use per capita (X2201) Total water use/total population Negative 
Water use per 10,000 yuan of GDP (X2202) Total water use/gross domestic product Negative 
Effective utilization coefficient of irrigated water use (X2203) Obtained from the water resources bulletin Positive 
Water use per 10,000 yuan of added industrial output (X2204) Industrial water use/added industrial output value Negative 
Sewage treatment proportion of GDP (X2301) Sewage treatment investment/gross domestic product Positive 
Urban sewage treatment rate (X2302) Urban sewage treated/sewage discharged Positive 
Urban sewage reuse rate (X2303) Urban sewage reused/sewage discharged Positive 
Economic loss caused by floods (X2401) Direct economic losses caused by floods/gross domestic product Negative 
Population affected by floods (X2402) Population affected by floods/total population Negative 
Evaluation indicatorsCalculation methodsIndicator direction
Water resources per capita (X1101) Total water resources/total population Positive 
Precipitation (X1102) Obtained from the water resources bulletin Positive 
Water production modulus (X1103) Total water resources/total land area Positive 
Water resources utilization rate (X1104) Total water use/total water resources Negative 
River water quality satisfaction rate (X1201) Percentage of monitoring river sections with water quality better than Class III (including Class III)a Positive 
Fertilizer use per unit irrigated farmland area (X1202) Fertilizer use/total irrigated farmland area Negative 
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in water (X1203) COD discharge amount/total water resources Negative 
Ammonia-nitrogen level in water (X1204) Ammonia-nitrogen discharge amount/total water resources Negative 
Run-off depth (X1301) The depth of the water obtained by spreading the total run-off evenly over the whole basin area within a certain period Positive 
Ecological water requirement satisfaction rate (X1302) Ecological water usage/total water resources Positive 
Wetland area proportion (X1303) Wetland area/total land area Positive 
Forest coverage (X1304) Forested land area/total land area Positive 
Water supply pipe length per capita (X2101) Urban water supply pipe length/total urban population Positive 
Water access rate (X2102) Population with access to tap water/total population Positive 
Area proportion of crop affected by drought (X2103) Crop area affected by drought/total farmland area Negative 
Population affected by drought (X2104) Population affected by drought/total population Negative 
Effective irrigation area proportion (X2105) Effective irrigated farmland area/total farmland area Positive 
Total water use per capita (X2201) Total water use/total population Negative 
Water use per 10,000 yuan of GDP (X2202) Total water use/gross domestic product Negative 
Effective utilization coefficient of irrigated water use (X2203) Obtained from the water resources bulletin Positive 
Water use per 10,000 yuan of added industrial output (X2204) Industrial water use/added industrial output value Negative 
Sewage treatment proportion of GDP (X2301) Sewage treatment investment/gross domestic product Positive 
Urban sewage treatment rate (X2302) Urban sewage treated/sewage discharged Positive 
Urban sewage reuse rate (X2303) Urban sewage reused/sewage discharged Positive 
Economic loss caused by floods (X2401) Direct economic losses caused by floods/gross domestic product Negative 
Population affected by floods (X2402) Population affected by floods/total population Negative 

aClass III in the national water quality standard of China. Water quality better than Class III (including Class III) mainly requires: dissolved oxygen ≥ 5 mg L−1, COD ≤ 20 mg L−1, BOD5 ≤ 4 mg L−1, ammonia nitrogen ≤ 1.0 mg L−1.

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