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However, such changes in the proportions of the pump construction and operation cost were not observed in the Apulian-52.5 network (Table 4). Because the tank water level changes are not rapid, the highest robustness level (9 m) in the Apulian-52.5 network was bigger than that (6.6 m) in the Apulian-35 network. To compensate for the bigger tank size, a bigger pump was constructed for the Apulian-52.5 network than for the Apulian-35 network (e.g., two 90 kW pumps in the least-cost solution of the former and two 75 kW pumps in that of the latter). To have the same level of robustness, fewer total costs were invested in the Apulian-52.5 network than in the Apulian-35 network (e.g., 6.5 million USD for SRobreq = 9 m in the former, while 6.9 million USD for the same SRobreq of the latter) (Tables 3 and 4). The improved resourcefulness from the increased tank capacity helped improve the cost-effectiveness of the robustness-based operation.

Table 4

Austin network's pump design and scheduling solutions obtained with a bigger tank capacity (tank volume = 12,755 tons)

Daily maximum pressure difference (m)Pump capacity (kW)Number of pumpsPOC (%)PCC (%)Total cost (USD)
26.9 90 3,593,519 (66) 1,889,698 (34) 5,483,217 
15.0 75 3,923,947 (69) 1,756,790 (31) 5,680,737 
10.0 55 4,006,493 (66) 2,061,125 (34) 6,067,618 
9.0 55 4,416,814 (68) 2,061,125 (32) 6,477,939 
Daily maximum pressure difference (m)Pump capacity (kW)Number of pumpsPOC (%)PCC (%)Total cost (USD)
26.9 90 3,593,519 (66) 1,889,698 (34) 5,483,217 
15.0 75 3,923,947 (69) 1,756,790 (31) 5,680,737 
10.0 55 4,006,493 (66) 2,061,125 (34) 6,067,618 
9.0 55 4,416,814 (68) 2,061,125 (32) 6,477,939 

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