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Table 4

Results of parameter calibration using the SWAT model

ParameterDescriptionOptimal valueRangeRank
SURLAG Surface runoff lag time coefficient 18.132 (0.05, 24) 
CN2 SCS runoff curve number 0.155 (− 0.2, 0.2) 
SOL_K Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity 0.648 (− 0.8, 0.8) 
SOL_BD Volume weight of soil 0.521 (− 0.5, 0.6) 
SOL_AWC Available water content of soil −0.131 (− 0.2, 0.4) 
GW_DELAY Groundwater delay time (days) 115.833 (0, 500) 
ALPHA_BF Baseflow factor (days) 0.598 (0, 1) 
GWQMN Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (mm) 925.000 (0, 5000) 
GW_REVAP Groundwater revap. coefficient 0.050 (0.02, 0.2) 
REVAPMN Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for revap. (mm) 745.000 (0, 1000) 10 
ALPHA_BNK Bank regulation base flow factor 0.622 (0, 1) 11 
CH_N2 Manning coefficient of the main channel 0.155 (0, 0.3) 12 
CH_K2 Channel effective hydraulic conductivity (mm/h) 0.170 (− 0.01, 0.3) 13 
CH_N1 Manning coefficient of branches 8.057 (0.01, 30) 14 
CH_K1 Effective permeability coefficient of tributary alluvium (mm/h) 214.500 (0, 300) 15 
LAT_TTIME Lateral flow time 8.100 (0, 180) 16 
CANMX Maximum canopy water storage 19.500 (0, 100) 17 
ESCO Soil evaporation compensation factor 0.259 (0.01, 1) 18 
EPCO Plant transpiration compensation coefficient 0.480 (0, 1) 19 
ParameterDescriptionOptimal valueRangeRank
SURLAG Surface runoff lag time coefficient 18.132 (0.05, 24) 
CN2 SCS runoff curve number 0.155 (− 0.2, 0.2) 
SOL_K Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity 0.648 (− 0.8, 0.8) 
SOL_BD Volume weight of soil 0.521 (− 0.5, 0.6) 
SOL_AWC Available water content of soil −0.131 (− 0.2, 0.4) 
GW_DELAY Groundwater delay time (days) 115.833 (0, 500) 
ALPHA_BF Baseflow factor (days) 0.598 (0, 1) 
GWQMN Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (mm) 925.000 (0, 5000) 
GW_REVAP Groundwater revap. coefficient 0.050 (0.02, 0.2) 
REVAPMN Threshold water depth in the shallow aquifer for revap. (mm) 745.000 (0, 1000) 10 
ALPHA_BNK Bank regulation base flow factor 0.622 (0, 1) 11 
CH_N2 Manning coefficient of the main channel 0.155 (0, 0.3) 12 
CH_K2 Channel effective hydraulic conductivity (mm/h) 0.170 (− 0.01, 0.3) 13 
CH_N1 Manning coefficient of branches 8.057 (0.01, 30) 14 
CH_K1 Effective permeability coefficient of tributary alluvium (mm/h) 214.500 (0, 300) 15 
LAT_TTIME Lateral flow time 8.100 (0, 180) 16 
CANMX Maximum canopy water storage 19.500 (0, 100) 17 
ESCO Soil evaporation compensation factor 0.259 (0.01, 1) 18 
EPCO Plant transpiration compensation coefficient 0.480 (0, 1) 19 
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