Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Descriptive statistics, by toilet ownership, reported by study participants. Chi-square analyses were used to compare households with and without toilets

 Households without a toilet (%)Households with a toilet (%)p-value
Age   0.0462 
 Young (18–35) 40.5 34.0  
 Middle (36–55) 47.3 51.2  
 Older (56 or older) 12.3 14.9  
Sex   0.1105 
 Female 53.2 48.9  
 Male 46.8 51.1  
Household size   0.0395 
 Small (1–3) 31.2 25.4  
 Middle (4–6) 55.6 57.4  
 Large (7 or more) 13.3 17.2  
Relationship to household head   0.4832 
 Self 51.6 53.6  
 Other 48.4 46.4  
Education   <0.0001 
 Less than primary 42.2 16.7  
 Primary education 26.8 24.4  
 Pre-secondary education 17.5 21.7  
 Secondary or higher 13.5 37.2  
District   <0.0001 
 Alor 28.9 7.9  
 Sumba Timur 9.9 19.3  
 Luwu Utara 14.3 28.2  
 Takalar 30.3 17.5  
 Barru 12.6 15.8  
 Jayapura 4.1 11.3  
Have access to water year-round   <0.0001 
 Yes 76.8 93.0  
 No 23.2 7.0  
Wealth quintile   <0.0001 
 Poorest 33.4 13.4  
 Poorer 23.0 17.6  
 Middle 20.5 19.5  
 Richer 16.1 23.9  
 Richest 7.0 25.7  
 Households without a toilet (%)Households with a toilet (%)p-value
Age   0.0462 
 Young (18–35) 40.5 34.0  
 Middle (36–55) 47.3 51.2  
 Older (56 or older) 12.3 14.9  
Sex   0.1105 
 Female 53.2 48.9  
 Male 46.8 51.1  
Household size   0.0395 
 Small (1–3) 31.2 25.4  
 Middle (4–6) 55.6 57.4  
 Large (7 or more) 13.3 17.2  
Relationship to household head   0.4832 
 Self 51.6 53.6  
 Other 48.4 46.4  
Education   <0.0001 
 Less than primary 42.2 16.7  
 Primary education 26.8 24.4  
 Pre-secondary education 17.5 21.7  
 Secondary or higher 13.5 37.2  
District   <0.0001 
 Alor 28.9 7.9  
 Sumba Timur 9.9 19.3  
 Luwu Utara 14.3 28.2  
 Takalar 30.3 17.5  
 Barru 12.6 15.8  
 Jayapura 4.1 11.3  
Have access to water year-round   <0.0001 
 Yes 76.8 93.0  
 No 23.2 7.0  
Wealth quintile   <0.0001 
 Poorest 33.4 13.4  
 Poorer 23.0 17.6  
 Middle 20.5 19.5  
 Richer 16.1 23.9  
 Richest 7.0 25.7  
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal