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Table 3

Zero-order generalized linear model (GLM) regression (Family: Poisson, Link: Log) of self-reported ownership of a household sanitation facility by respondents’ attitudes and perceptions regarding sanitation practices

 Prevalence ratioStd. error95% CIt-statistic
Most people in this community do not have a toilet (Ref: Disagree) 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.656*** 0.405 0.581 0.741 −6.84 
 Agree 0.566*** 0.326 0.505 0.633 −9.90 
People think having toilets at home is modern 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.996 0.520 0.899 1.104 −0.07 
 Agree 0.973 0.056 0.868 1.090 −0.48 
Many people think a toilet is too expensive to build in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.863** 0.038 0.793 0.941 −3.38 
 Agree 0.728*** 0.040 0.653 0.811 −5.75 
It is acceptable to defecate in the open 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.837** 0.054 0.738 0.949 −2.79 
 Agree 0.750* 0.086 0.599 0.938 −2.52 
It is embarrassing when people see others defecating in the open 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.746* 0.086 0.595 0.936 −2.54 
 Agree 1.057 0.074 0.921 1.214 0.80 
Most people feel ashamed not to have a toilet in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.919 0.061 0.806 1.048 −1.26 
 0.906 0.059 0.796 1.030 −1.51 
Many people do not want to build a toilet in their house because it smells 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.867 0.055 0.766 0.981 −2.27 
 Agree 0.915 0.126 0.698 1.199 −0.65 
It is not a problem defecating on the beach or in a river 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.811*** 0.043 0.730 0.900 −3.95 
 Agree 0.562*** 0.080 0.425 0.743 −4.06 
Most people would not mind their daughters’ marriage with a man without a toilet 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.740*** 0.036 0.673 0.814 −6.20 
 Agree 0.916 0.049 0.825 1.018 −1.64 
Babies’ feces do not spread disease 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.846* 0.059 0.737 0.971 −2.39 
 Agree 0.972 0.089 0.813 1.163 0.76 
Many people believe that women do not need privacy to defecate 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.929 0.077 0.790 1.093 −0.89 
 Agree 1.044 0.082 0.894 1.219 0.55 
In most families, men make a decision on if they build a toilet in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 1.158 0.091 0.991 1.352 1.86 
 Agree 1.202* 0.089 1.040 1.390 2.49 
There is no relationship between OD and diarrhea 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.931 0.056 0.828 1.047 −1.19 
 Agree 0.838 0.096 0.669 1.050 −1.54 
 Prevalence ratioStd. error95% CIt-statistic
Most people in this community do not have a toilet (Ref: Disagree) 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.656*** 0.405 0.581 0.741 −6.84 
 Agree 0.566*** 0.326 0.505 0.633 −9.90 
People think having toilets at home is modern 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.996 0.520 0.899 1.104 −0.07 
 Agree 0.973 0.056 0.868 1.090 −0.48 
Many people think a toilet is too expensive to build in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.863** 0.038 0.793 0.941 −3.38 
 Agree 0.728*** 0.040 0.653 0.811 −5.75 
It is acceptable to defecate in the open 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.837** 0.054 0.738 0.949 −2.79 
 Agree 0.750* 0.086 0.599 0.938 −2.52 
It is embarrassing when people see others defecating in the open 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.746* 0.086 0.595 0.936 −2.54 
 Agree 1.057 0.074 0.921 1.214 0.80 
Most people feel ashamed not to have a toilet in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.919 0.061 0.806 1.048 −1.26 
 0.906 0.059 0.796 1.030 −1.51 
Many people do not want to build a toilet in their house because it smells 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.867 0.055 0.766 0.981 −2.27 
 Agree 0.915 0.126 0.698 1.199 −0.65 
It is not a problem defecating on the beach or in a river 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.811*** 0.043 0.730 0.900 −3.95 
 Agree 0.562*** 0.080 0.425 0.743 −4.06 
Most people would not mind their daughters’ marriage with a man without a toilet 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.740*** 0.036 0.673 0.814 −6.20 
 Agree 0.916 0.049 0.825 1.018 −1.64 
Babies’ feces do not spread disease 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.846* 0.059 0.737 0.971 −2.39 
 Agree 0.972 0.089 0.813 1.163 0.76 
Many people believe that women do not need privacy to defecate 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.929 0.077 0.790 1.093 −0.89 
 Agree 1.044 0.082 0.894 1.219 0.55 
In most families, men make a decision on if they build a toilet in their house 
 Neither disagree nor agree 1.158 0.091 0.991 1.352 1.86 
 Agree 1.202* 0.089 1.040 1.390 2.49 
There is no relationship between OD and diarrhea 
 Neither disagree nor agree 0.931 0.056 0.828 1.047 −1.19 
 Agree 0.838 0.096 0.669 1.050 −1.54 

*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.

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