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Table 1

Business problems of FS collection and transport services

Political issuesEconomic issues
(P1) Lacking national laws, local regulations and overlapping policies lead to ineffective FS collection, transport and disposal activities (E1) Low investments for trucks and high energy costs increase the operation cost 
(P2) Some authorities allow private companies to operate these services even when their municipalities do not offer proper FS treatment plants (E2) Revenue decreases due to limited numbers of customers, price-dumping from competitors and the increasing FS discharge fee 
(P3) Without local monitoring guidelines, several unlicensed service operators disturb the market (E3) Cost-revenue imbalances make the service unprofitable 
Socio-cultural issuesTechnological issues
(S1) Society perceives the services dealing with FS as dirty and ‘low-level’ business (T1) Internal factors include broken equipment, poor transport vehicle condition and lack of operators' skill that lead to unhygienic practices and occupational hazards 
(S2) Since FS collection and transport services are considered as unclean and hazardous jobs, the service providers tend not to commit to long-term working and do not concern the corporate social responsibility (T2) External factors include difficult accessibility to pit or tank; poor domestic sanitation facilities; long distance to disposal plants and traffic jam 
(S3) FS by-products are not widely marketized and used; therefore, FS collection and transport services are not well-developed to engage with FS treatment and reuse business (T3) Appropriate FS collection and transport logistics technologies are not available or well-implemented 
Political issuesEconomic issues
(P1) Lacking national laws, local regulations and overlapping policies lead to ineffective FS collection, transport and disposal activities (E1) Low investments for trucks and high energy costs increase the operation cost 
(P2) Some authorities allow private companies to operate these services even when their municipalities do not offer proper FS treatment plants (E2) Revenue decreases due to limited numbers of customers, price-dumping from competitors and the increasing FS discharge fee 
(P3) Without local monitoring guidelines, several unlicensed service operators disturb the market (E3) Cost-revenue imbalances make the service unprofitable 
Socio-cultural issuesTechnological issues
(S1) Society perceives the services dealing with FS as dirty and ‘low-level’ business (T1) Internal factors include broken equipment, poor transport vehicle condition and lack of operators' skill that lead to unhygienic practices and occupational hazards 
(S2) Since FS collection and transport services are considered as unclean and hazardous jobs, the service providers tend not to commit to long-term working and do not concern the corporate social responsibility (T2) External factors include difficult accessibility to pit or tank; poor domestic sanitation facilities; long distance to disposal plants and traffic jam 
(S3) FS by-products are not widely marketized and used; therefore, FS collection and transport services are not well-developed to engage with FS treatment and reuse business (T3) Appropriate FS collection and transport logistics technologies are not available or well-implemented 
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