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Table 2

Business components’ evolution by scale of FS collection and transport services

Business components of FS collection and transportService scale, numbers of trucks, trucka investment cost (US$)
Small, 1 to 2 truck(s), less than $20,000Medium, 3 to 5 trucks, from $20,000 to $200,000Large, more than 5 trucks, more than $200,000
1. Key Resource: Inputs to operate of services, including hardware and software resources Limited truck fleets and networks Truck fleet increases with wider resources High-tech trucks with various collection operation functions. Skillful staff with better working capacities 
2. Key Partner: External resources that support the service operation Limited partnerships and focus on internal resources Partnerships among firms to form co-operative service provider networks Partnerships with truck providers and treatment plants to treat FS for by-products 
3. Key Activity: Key role to produce the proposed value Only FS collection and transport services Diverse services related to FS management and after sale services Full range of FS, waste management and sanitation services for key customers 
4. Value Proposition: Value that the services propose and deliver to the customers Basic value is proposed for customers: collection and transport FS Improved value with added pre-services and after sale services High proposed values with diverse services: scheduled FS services with sanitation and hygiene services 
5. Customer Segment: Types of customers that services serve The main market is private households Markets are private households and public buildings Various markets: domestic, public areas and industrial zones 
6. Distribution Channel: The way the service operators reach and bring service to their customers through online and offline methods Limited communication tools without brand Telecommunication-based with well-known brand Information Communication Technology with internet-based and call centre. Eco-friendly and well-known brands 
7. Customer Relationship: Interaction between the service providers and their customers Loose relationship: Focus to serve customers who need one-time transaction service Moderate relationship: Find and keep customers Strong relationship: Apply customer relationship management tool 
8. Cost: Investment costs and operation and maintenance costs Cost-driven with optimized operational costs Cost-driven with shared marketing and operational cost Value-driven to take advantage of economies of scale 
9. Revenue: Amount of income earned from customers by providing the services Revenue fluctuates depending on daily customers Increase revenues with the frequent customers Stabilize revenue through key-account and repeated customers 
Business components of FS collection and transportService scale, numbers of trucks, trucka investment cost (US$)
Small, 1 to 2 truck(s), less than $20,000Medium, 3 to 5 trucks, from $20,000 to $200,000Large, more than 5 trucks, more than $200,000
1. Key Resource: Inputs to operate of services, including hardware and software resources Limited truck fleets and networks Truck fleet increases with wider resources High-tech trucks with various collection operation functions. Skillful staff with better working capacities 
2. Key Partner: External resources that support the service operation Limited partnerships and focus on internal resources Partnerships among firms to form co-operative service provider networks Partnerships with truck providers and treatment plants to treat FS for by-products 
3. Key Activity: Key role to produce the proposed value Only FS collection and transport services Diverse services related to FS management and after sale services Full range of FS, waste management and sanitation services for key customers 
4. Value Proposition: Value that the services propose and deliver to the customers Basic value is proposed for customers: collection and transport FS Improved value with added pre-services and after sale services High proposed values with diverse services: scheduled FS services with sanitation and hygiene services 
5. Customer Segment: Types of customers that services serve The main market is private households Markets are private households and public buildings Various markets: domestic, public areas and industrial zones 
6. Distribution Channel: The way the service operators reach and bring service to their customers through online and offline methods Limited communication tools without brand Telecommunication-based with well-known brand Information Communication Technology with internet-based and call centre. Eco-friendly and well-known brands 
7. Customer Relationship: Interaction between the service providers and their customers Loose relationship: Focus to serve customers who need one-time transaction service Moderate relationship: Find and keep customers Strong relationship: Apply customer relationship management tool 
8. Cost: Investment costs and operation and maintenance costs Cost-driven with optimized operational costs Cost-driven with shared marketing and operational cost Value-driven to take advantage of economies of scale 
9. Revenue: Amount of income earned from customers by providing the services Revenue fluctuates depending on daily customers Increase revenues with the frequent customers Stabilize revenue through key-account and repeated customers 

aTrucks were brand new or assembled vehicles for FS collection and transport purposes.

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