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Table 3

Extended business components of FS collection and transport services

Extended business componentCountry
FinlandThailandVietnam
10. Legislation: Legal frameworks and regulations for FS services Ministry of the Environment clearly defines septic tank sludge as municipal waste required to be collected and transported to treatment plant. There are clear regulations concerning punishment of harming environment activities. European Commission guides the disposal and recycling routes for sewage sludge (Government decree on waste 2012) Ministry of Public Health supervises the FS practice by providing the regulations, criteria, provision, service fee and licensing. There are standards or guidelines on FS management practices monitoring or enforcing punishment as the human excreta management regulation is not clear (Suebsoh & Charerntanyarak 2009) Ministry of Construction is responsible for establishing and implementing policies on sanitation and wastewater infrastructure which do not mention the FS collection and transport service. There are penalties for illegal FS dropping or not maintaining hygienic conditions during transport routes (Nguyen et al. 2011) 
11. Ownership: Capital and asset owners who keep the most significant roles in the services management Public company: Limited and joint stock. Private sector: limited company Local administrative organization (city, town, sub-district municipals). Private sector: Licensed and unlicensed limited company Public company: Limited and joint stock. Licensed and unlicensed limited company. Co-operative organizations 
Extended business componentCountry
FinlandThailandVietnam
10. Legislation: Legal frameworks and regulations for FS services Ministry of the Environment clearly defines septic tank sludge as municipal waste required to be collected and transported to treatment plant. There are clear regulations concerning punishment of harming environment activities. European Commission guides the disposal and recycling routes for sewage sludge (Government decree on waste 2012) Ministry of Public Health supervises the FS practice by providing the regulations, criteria, provision, service fee and licensing. There are standards or guidelines on FS management practices monitoring or enforcing punishment as the human excreta management regulation is not clear (Suebsoh & Charerntanyarak 2009) Ministry of Construction is responsible for establishing and implementing policies on sanitation and wastewater infrastructure which do not mention the FS collection and transport service. There are penalties for illegal FS dropping or not maintaining hygienic conditions during transport routes (Nguyen et al. 2011) 
11. Ownership: Capital and asset owners who keep the most significant roles in the services management Public company: Limited and joint stock. Private sector: limited company Local administrative organization (city, town, sub-district municipals). Private sector: Licensed and unlicensed limited company Public company: Limited and joint stock. Licensed and unlicensed limited company. Co-operative organizations 
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