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Table 3

Water security and water-related behaviors (n = 134)

Variables
Mean ± SD
Total amount of water available in the household at the moment of the interview (liters) 46 ± 61* 
Amount of drinking water available (liters)a 15 ± 15 
Amount of water available for chores (liters)a 37 ± 72 
n (%)b
Location of water sourcec 
 On premise (piped connection/individual wells) 9 (7%)* 
 Either the chores or drinking water sources was off-premise 32 (24%)* 
 Off-premise 90 (69%)* 
Walking more than 10 minutes to the water source 73 (55%)* 
Total number of affirmative responses on the water insecurity scale (water insecurity prevalence) 78 (58%) 
Affirmative responses on the six items of water insecurity scaleb 
 Worries about household not having enough water 49 (37%) 
 Used just a little water day after day because of lack of resources 29 (22%) 
 Not able to maintain good hygiene because of lack of resources 30 (23%) 
 Drank poor quality water because of lack of resources 36 (27%) 
 Borrowed water from somebody in the village for daily chores 13 (10%) 
 Health concerns 5 (4%) 
Sanitation facilities 
 Modern flushing toilets 32 (24%) 
 Simple pit latrines 89 (66%) 
 Latrines with wooden platform 13 (10%) 
Where does the child defecate? 
 Latrines 67 (50%) 
 Child stool bowl 37 (28%) 
 Child defecates around the house 30 (22%) 
Variables
Mean ± SD
Total amount of water available in the household at the moment of the interview (liters) 46 ± 61* 
Amount of drinking water available (liters)a 15 ± 15 
Amount of water available for chores (liters)a 37 ± 72 
n (%)b
Location of water sourcec 
 On premise (piped connection/individual wells) 9 (7%)* 
 Either the chores or drinking water sources was off-premise 32 (24%)* 
 Off-premise 90 (69%)* 
Walking more than 10 minutes to the water source 73 (55%)* 
Total number of affirmative responses on the water insecurity scale (water insecurity prevalence) 78 (58%) 
Affirmative responses on the six items of water insecurity scaleb 
 Worries about household not having enough water 49 (37%) 
 Used just a little water day after day because of lack of resources 29 (22%) 
 Not able to maintain good hygiene because of lack of resources 30 (23%) 
 Drank poor quality water because of lack of resources 36 (27%) 
 Borrowed water from somebody in the village for daily chores 13 (10%) 
 Health concerns 5 (4%) 
Sanitation facilities 
 Modern flushing toilets 32 (24%) 
 Simple pit latrines 89 (66%) 
 Latrines with wooden platform 13 (10%) 
Where does the child defecate? 
 Latrines 67 (50%) 
 Child stool bowl 37 (28%) 
 Child defecates around the house 30 (22%) 

aWe only considered those of the households who had a separate source for drinking and for water for chores (60%).

bThree households which used bottled water as a primary water source were excluded from the analysis.

cThe reference period for each item used was the 'past 30 days'. The response of ‘sometimes’ or ‘always’ was considered as an affirmative response.

*Analyses were conducted to assess the correlation between these variables and water security status and p ≤ 0.05.

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