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Table 1

Protection schemes

Protection schemesNo measures of protection
Close valve rule
Thirteen air valves
Combination of thirteen air valves and one-way surge tank
PumpType AType BType AType BType AType BType AType B
Close valve rule Do not close Do not close Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° 
Reverse flow time(s) 6.96 5.82 6.99 5.96 6.99 5.96 6.21 5.60 
Reverse rotation speed ratio −1.69 −1.51 −1.42 −1.51 −1.42 −1.51 −1.16 −0.88 
The pressure in the pipeline Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min Pressure (m) 
 209.31 −8 224.96 −8 224.96 −8 120.51 −4.34 
Protection schemesNo measures of protection
Close valve rule
Thirteen air valves
Combination of thirteen air valves and one-way surge tank
PumpType AType BType AType BType AType BType AType B
Close valve rule Do not close Do not close Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° Two stages: 5 s/75°, 60 s/15° 
Reverse flow time(s) 6.96 5.82 6.99 5.96 6.99 5.96 6.21 5.60 
Reverse rotation speed ratio −1.69 −1.51 −1.42 −1.51 −1.42 −1.51 −1.16 −0.88 
The pressure in the pipeline Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min pressure (m) Max pressure (m) Min Pressure (m) 
 209.31 −8 224.96 −8 224.96 −8 120.51 −4.34 
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