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Table 1

Main findings and lessons learnt

CaseMain findingsLessons learnt
South Africa The key factors in successful implementation of FBW and FBS are good planning; the honest assessment of water service authorities capacity and consequential contracting of experts to fulfil the role and responsibilities the providers cannot fill; political support for those policies; and accountability. Even with good planning, resources have to be made available to allow proper implementation in vulnerable areas. There is a requirement to build and retain resources (e.g. human and financial) for due policy implementation and management. 
Vietnam A typical case for a developing country where the Government maintains water tariffs at low levels under an IBT, perhaps to attend the needs of the low-income population group. With current O&M budgets set at rates which are very low by international comparisons, these would not enable utilities to maintain acceptable levels of service, thus it is not the desirable way forward to sustain water business in the country. 
Malaysia A brave step in reforming the WS governance (from a disorganized situation at state and federal levels) can enhance coordination and improve management, in situations with or without private participation. Depending on the situation, a federal act may be a relevant solution to promote new policies. In this case, moving competencies from state to federal level, may bring the opportunity to apply more suitable pricing policies (hopefully). 
Singapore In summary, Singapore presents a successful case where combined management, coordination and policy coherence seek full-cost recovery. Singapore follows the same approach as Australia in moving away from IBT towards VL-based structures to ensure full-cost recovery. These types of tariffs may raise affordability problems, nonetheless, rebate schemes may prove a valuable solution. 
Australia Sets an ideal example with its mature water business where water tariffs reflect LRMC, thereby ensuring sustainability of businesses in the future. The step of considering ‘customer participation’ as a focal point in the regulatory process. To consider synergetic approaches besides pricing policies. Although the pricing principles are set at national level, at local level, the situation may be different, with ‘politicized’ situations. There may be a need for capacity building at local level. 
Europe Common guidelines are an important point when trying to improve transnational relations, and to make sure there is a reliable cost recovery that leads to suitable service levels. The case of tariff recommendations may be important for capacity building. Furthermore, there is a need to avoid mixing water policies with other matters (case of Ireland) while promoting a proper knowledge dissemination across customers. 
CaseMain findingsLessons learnt
South Africa The key factors in successful implementation of FBW and FBS are good planning; the honest assessment of water service authorities capacity and consequential contracting of experts to fulfil the role and responsibilities the providers cannot fill; political support for those policies; and accountability. Even with good planning, resources have to be made available to allow proper implementation in vulnerable areas. There is a requirement to build and retain resources (e.g. human and financial) for due policy implementation and management. 
Vietnam A typical case for a developing country where the Government maintains water tariffs at low levels under an IBT, perhaps to attend the needs of the low-income population group. With current O&M budgets set at rates which are very low by international comparisons, these would not enable utilities to maintain acceptable levels of service, thus it is not the desirable way forward to sustain water business in the country. 
Malaysia A brave step in reforming the WS governance (from a disorganized situation at state and federal levels) can enhance coordination and improve management, in situations with or without private participation. Depending on the situation, a federal act may be a relevant solution to promote new policies. In this case, moving competencies from state to federal level, may bring the opportunity to apply more suitable pricing policies (hopefully). 
Singapore In summary, Singapore presents a successful case where combined management, coordination and policy coherence seek full-cost recovery. Singapore follows the same approach as Australia in moving away from IBT towards VL-based structures to ensure full-cost recovery. These types of tariffs may raise affordability problems, nonetheless, rebate schemes may prove a valuable solution. 
Australia Sets an ideal example with its mature water business where water tariffs reflect LRMC, thereby ensuring sustainability of businesses in the future. The step of considering ‘customer participation’ as a focal point in the regulatory process. To consider synergetic approaches besides pricing policies. Although the pricing principles are set at national level, at local level, the situation may be different, with ‘politicized’ situations. There may be a need for capacity building at local level. 
Europe Common guidelines are an important point when trying to improve transnational relations, and to make sure there is a reliable cost recovery that leads to suitable service levels. The case of tariff recommendations may be important for capacity building. Furthermore, there is a need to avoid mixing water policies with other matters (case of Ireland) while promoting a proper knowledge dissemination across customers. 
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