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Table 1

Summary of parameters of concern for single contactor, lead-lag series contactors, and two-staged parallel contactors operational strategies for fluoride control (C0= 8.5 mg/L) by bonechar sorbent

Single contactorLead-lag series contactorsTwo-staged parallel contactors
Sorbent use rate (g/L) 2.8 (3.7) 1.5 (1.5) 2.0 
Replacement frequency (d) 7.0 (5.5) 13.0 (13.5) 8.6 
Average effluent F concentration (mg/L) 0.70 (0.79) 0.39 (0.48) 0.88 
Single contactorLead-lag series contactorsTwo-staged parallel contactors
Sorbent use rate (g/L) 2.8 (3.7) 1.5 (1.5) 2.0 
Replacement frequency (d) 7.0 (5.5) 13.0 (13.5) 8.6 
Average effluent F concentration (mg/L) 0.70 (0.79) 0.39 (0.48) 0.88 

Values estimated from data collected using experimental setup B are given in parentheses.

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