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Table 2

Socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

Gwalior (n = 201)Indore (n = 221)Jabalpur (n = 200)
Household characteristicsa 
 Educational attainment of women 
  No education 78.6 57.9 24.0 
  Primary education 6.0 17.2 30.0 
  More than high school 6.5 12.2 16.5 
 Household size (number of people) 5.61 4.97 5.39 
 Scheduled Tribeb 13.4 12.2 18.5 
 Scheduled Casteb 0.5 15.8 24.5 
 Hindu 58.2 99.5 98.0 
 Muslim 41.8 0.0 0.5 
 Household consumption (in 1000 Rupees [INR]) 16.63 43.44 53.13 
Housing and tenurea 
 Continued residence in settlement (in years) 12.3 15.6 27.4 
 Moved for family reasons 34.3 10.4 2.5 
 Moved for financial reasons 46.3 48.9 15.5 
 Bought or inherited landc 57.1 86.1 73.0 
 Squatting/without official documents 41.9 13.9 25.5 
 Owns house 96.5 96.8 99.5 
 Rents house/room 2.5 3.2 0.0 
 Has toilet in dwelling unit 34.3 73.3 42.0 
Gwalior (n = 201)Indore (n = 221)Jabalpur (n = 200)
Household characteristicsa 
 Educational attainment of women 
  No education 78.6 57.9 24.0 
  Primary education 6.0 17.2 30.0 
  More than high school 6.5 12.2 16.5 
 Household size (number of people) 5.61 4.97 5.39 
 Scheduled Tribeb 13.4 12.2 18.5 
 Scheduled Casteb 0.5 15.8 24.5 
 Hindu 58.2 99.5 98.0 
 Muslim 41.8 0.0 0.5 
 Household consumption (in 1000 Rupees [INR]) 16.63 43.44 53.13 
Housing and tenurea 
 Continued residence in settlement (in years) 12.3 15.6 27.4 
 Moved for family reasons 34.3 10.4 2.5 
 Moved for financial reasons 46.3 48.9 15.5 
 Bought or inherited landc 57.1 86.1 73.0 
 Squatting/without official documents 41.9 13.9 25.5 
 Owns house 96.5 96.8 99.5 
 Rents house/room 2.5 3.2 0.0 
 Has toilet in dwelling unit 34.3 73.3 42.0 

aIn % unless indicated otherwise.

bScheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), and Other Backward Classes (OBCs) are caste categories that are recognized by the Constitution of India and comprise of historically marginalized groups. The Constitution and other legislations provide a framework for affirmative action for the categories.

cClaimed ownership by stating that they had bought or inherited the land.

Source: Field Survey 2007–2008.

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