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Table 1

Mean (± SD) seasonal variations in physico-chemical environmental variables in upper zone (1,158–4,100 m a.s.l.) of the River Bhagirathi

ParametersAutumn (Oct–Nov)Winter (Dec–Mar)Summer (Apr–Jun)Monsoon (Jul–Sep)
Water temperature (°C) 10.61 ± 1.41 7.00 ± 1.24 12.23 ± 0.63 13.6 ± 0.007 
Turbidity (NTU) 1.30 ± 0.007 2.80 ± 0.41 25.63 ± 37.25 174.62 ± 171.83 
Transparency (m) 1.53 ± 0.11 1.80 ± 00.00 1.38 ± 0.29 0.50 ± 0.001 
Conductivity (μS.cm−10.14 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.009 0.17 ± 15.00 0.07 ± 0.03 
TDS (mg.l−119.50 ± 2.13 7.25 ± 3.21 31.35 ± 20.72 89.00 ± 2.84 
pH 7.50 ± 0.04 7.30 ± 0.10 7.55 ± 0.10 7.79 ± 0.07 
Dissolved oxygen (mg.l−112.80 ± 0.80 16.53 ± 0.40 10.47 ± 0.057 10.30 ± 0.30 
Free CO2 (mg.l−10.014 ± 0.002 0.005 ± 0.006 0.021 ± 0.002 0.030 ± 0.002 
Phosphates (mg.l−10.09 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.33 ± 0.035 
Nitrates (mg.l−10.14 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.15 0.50 ± 0.03 
Sulfates (mg.l−10.60 ± 0.14 0.55 ± 0.10 0.90 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.03 
Chloride (mg.l−11.30 ± 0.50 0.75 ± 0.36 1.45 ± 0.15 2.30 ± 0.30 
Sodium (mg.l−13.21 ± 0.45 2.45 ± 0.50 3.45 ± 0.12 4.14 ± 1.18 
Potassium (mg.l−12.45 ± 0.007 1.75 ± 0.20 3.22 ± 1.20 3.78 ± 1.60 
ParametersAutumn (Oct–Nov)Winter (Dec–Mar)Summer (Apr–Jun)Monsoon (Jul–Sep)
Water temperature (°C) 10.61 ± 1.41 7.00 ± 1.24 12.23 ± 0.63 13.6 ± 0.007 
Turbidity (NTU) 1.30 ± 0.007 2.80 ± 0.41 25.63 ± 37.25 174.62 ± 171.83 
Transparency (m) 1.53 ± 0.11 1.80 ± 00.00 1.38 ± 0.29 0.50 ± 0.001 
Conductivity (μS.cm−10.14 ± 0.01 0.13 ± 0.009 0.17 ± 15.00 0.07 ± 0.03 
TDS (mg.l−119.50 ± 2.13 7.25 ± 3.21 31.35 ± 20.72 89.00 ± 2.84 
pH 7.50 ± 0.04 7.30 ± 0.10 7.55 ± 0.10 7.79 ± 0.07 
Dissolved oxygen (mg.l−112.80 ± 0.80 16.53 ± 0.40 10.47 ± 0.057 10.30 ± 0.30 
Free CO2 (mg.l−10.014 ± 0.002 0.005 ± 0.006 0.021 ± 0.002 0.030 ± 0.002 
Phosphates (mg.l−10.09 ± 0.01 0.06 ± 0.01 0.20 ± 0.01 0.33 ± 0.035 
Nitrates (mg.l−10.14 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.13 0.30 ± 0.15 0.50 ± 0.03 
Sulfates (mg.l−10.60 ± 0.14 0.55 ± 0.10 0.90 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.03 
Chloride (mg.l−11.30 ± 0.50 0.75 ± 0.36 1.45 ± 0.15 2.30 ± 0.30 
Sodium (mg.l−13.21 ± 0.45 2.45 ± 0.50 3.45 ± 0.12 4.14 ± 1.18 
Potassium (mg.l−12.45 ± 0.007 1.75 ± 0.20 3.22 ± 1.20 3.78 ± 1.60 
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