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Table 2

Mean (± SD) seasonal variations in physico-chemical environmental variables in lower zone (457–1,158 m a.s.l.) of the Bhagirathi River

ParametersAutumn (Oct–Nov)Winter (Dec–Mar)Summer (Apr–Jun)Monsoon (Jul–Sep)
Water temperature (°C) 15.35 ± 1.25 11.20 ± 0.48 17.80 ± 1.90 17.85 ± 0.32 
Turbidity (NTU) 14.25 ± 7.11 12.15 ± 4.17 89.50 ± 37.25 625.23 ± 210.12 
Transparency (m) 0.39 ± 0.27 0.65 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.02 
Conductivity (μS.cm−10.14 ± 0.03 0.16 ± 0.005 0.17 ± 0.04 0.09 ± 7.07 
TDS (mg.l−136.52 ± 3.24 22.45 ± 2.80 40.50 ± 20.18 100.0 ± 20.14 
pH 7.75 ± 0.11 7.45 ± 0.08 7.62 ± 0.07 7.85 ± 0.04 
Dissolved oxygen (mg.l−110.10 ± 0.35 11.17 ± 0.52 9.95 ± 0.39 9.25 ± 0.13 
Free CO2 (mg.l−12.10 ± 0.16 1.72 ± 0.50 1.80 ± 0.45 2.53 ± 0.02 
Phosphates (mg.l−10.21 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.08 0.54 ± 0.35 0.85 ± 0.12 
Nitrates (mg.l−10.40 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.10 0.45 ± 0.08 0.78 ± 0.04 
Sulfates (mg.l−11.62 ± 0.26 0.97 ± 0.41 2.19 ± 0.28 2.53 ± 1.05 
Chloride (mg.l−12.90 ± 0.28 2.54 ± 0.25 3.10 ± 0.12 3.84 ± 0.22 
Sodium (mg.l−14.25 ± 0.35 3.51 ± 0.19 5.095 ± 1.25 6.63 ± 1.22 
Potassium (mg.l−13.25 ± 0.002 3.21 ± 0.18 3.58 ± 0.0 4.26 ± 0.006 
ParametersAutumn (Oct–Nov)Winter (Dec–Mar)Summer (Apr–Jun)Monsoon (Jul–Sep)
Water temperature (°C) 15.35 ± 1.25 11.20 ± 0.48 17.80 ± 1.90 17.85 ± 0.32 
Turbidity (NTU) 14.25 ± 7.11 12.15 ± 4.17 89.50 ± 37.25 625.23 ± 210.12 
Transparency (m) 0.39 ± 0.27 0.65 ± 0.15 0.19 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.02 
Conductivity (μS.cm−10.14 ± 0.03 0.16 ± 0.005 0.17 ± 0.04 0.09 ± 7.07 
TDS (mg.l−136.52 ± 3.24 22.45 ± 2.80 40.50 ± 20.18 100.0 ± 20.14 
pH 7.75 ± 0.11 7.45 ± 0.08 7.62 ± 0.07 7.85 ± 0.04 
Dissolved oxygen (mg.l−110.10 ± 0.35 11.17 ± 0.52 9.95 ± 0.39 9.25 ± 0.13 
Free CO2 (mg.l−12.10 ± 0.16 1.72 ± 0.50 1.80 ± 0.45 2.53 ± 0.02 
Phosphates (mg.l−10.21 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.08 0.54 ± 0.35 0.85 ± 0.12 
Nitrates (mg.l−10.40 ± 0.04 0.25 ± 0.10 0.45 ± 0.08 0.78 ± 0.04 
Sulfates (mg.l−11.62 ± 0.26 0.97 ± 0.41 2.19 ± 0.28 2.53 ± 1.05 
Chloride (mg.l−12.90 ± 0.28 2.54 ± 0.25 3.10 ± 0.12 3.84 ± 0.22 
Sodium (mg.l−14.25 ± 0.35 3.51 ± 0.19 5.095 ± 1.25 6.63 ± 1.22 
Potassium (mg.l−13.25 ± 0.002 3.21 ± 0.18 3.58 ± 0.0 4.26 ± 0.006 
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