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Table 1

Effectiveness of WaSH aid in low-income and middle-income countries

ModelChild mortality
Improved water source
Improved sanitation
DPMLGMIVMDPMLGMIVMDPMLGMIVM
WaSH aid −0.003* (0.002) −0.006*** (0.002) −0.006 (0.009) 0.137*** (0.022) −0.012 (0.010) 0.332*** (0.043) 0.072*** (0.022) −0.019 (0.012) 0.121*** (0.0422) 
Health aid −0.003 (0.002) 0.002 (0.002) −0.004 (0.007)       
ODA −0.021*** (0.005) 0.002 (0.003) −0.020*** (0.005) 0.261*** (0.056) 0.208*** (0.020) 0.235*** (0.057) 0.303*** (0.056) 0.211*** (0.023) 0.297*** (0.056) 
GDP −0.100*** (0.001) −0.095*** (0.013) −0.097*** (0.014) 0.621*** (0.123) −0.489*** (0.084) 0.365*** (0.134) 0.733*** (0.122) 0.056 (0.097) 0.668*** (0.132) 
Polity2 −0.010* (0.006) −0.006 (0.004) −0.010* (0.006) 0.034 (0.065) −0.010 (0.023) 0.051 (0.066) 0.045 (0.064) 0.002 (0.027) 0.049 (0.064) 
Year −0.016*** (0.001) −0.038*** (0.002) −0.016*** (0.002) −0.012 (0.014) 0.591*** (0.055) −0.014 (0.015) −0.003 (0.0142) 0.502*** (0.048) −0.004 (0.014) 
DV lag 0.604*** (0.015)  0.604*** (0.015) 1.01*** (0.005)  1.01*** (0.006) 0.990*** (0.006)  0.992*** (0.006) 
Constant 2.54*** (0.126) 4.85*** (0.125) 2.52*** (0.133) −5.60*** (1.113) 73.43*** (2.018) −4.16*** (1.164) −5.97** (1.08) 51.7*** (2.12) −5.65*** (1.16) 
2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 
R squared 0.957  0.957 0.977  0.977 0.992  0.992 
ModelChild mortality
Improved water source
Improved sanitation
DPMLGMIVMDPMLGMIVMDPMLGMIVM
WaSH aid −0.003* (0.002) −0.006*** (0.002) −0.006 (0.009) 0.137*** (0.022) −0.012 (0.010) 0.332*** (0.043) 0.072*** (0.022) −0.019 (0.012) 0.121*** (0.0422) 
Health aid −0.003 (0.002) 0.002 (0.002) −0.004 (0.007)       
ODA −0.021*** (0.005) 0.002 (0.003) −0.020*** (0.005) 0.261*** (0.056) 0.208*** (0.020) 0.235*** (0.057) 0.303*** (0.056) 0.211*** (0.023) 0.297*** (0.056) 
GDP −0.100*** (0.001) −0.095*** (0.013) −0.097*** (0.014) 0.621*** (0.123) −0.489*** (0.084) 0.365*** (0.134) 0.733*** (0.122) 0.056 (0.097) 0.668*** (0.132) 
Polity2 −0.010* (0.006) −0.006 (0.004) −0.010* (0.006) 0.034 (0.065) −0.010 (0.023) 0.051 (0.066) 0.045 (0.064) 0.002 (0.027) 0.049 (0.064) 
Year −0.016*** (0.001) −0.038*** (0.002) −0.016*** (0.002) −0.012 (0.014) 0.591*** (0.055) −0.014 (0.015) −0.003 (0.0142) 0.502*** (0.048) −0.004 (0.014) 
DV lag 0.604*** (0.015)  0.604*** (0.015) 1.01*** (0.005)  1.01*** (0.006) 0.990*** (0.006)  0.992*** (0.006) 
Constant 2.54*** (0.126) 4.85*** (0.125) 2.52*** (0.133) −5.60*** (1.113) 73.43*** (2.018) −4.16*** (1.164) −5.97** (1.08) 51.7*** (2.12) −5.65*** (1.16) 
2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 2,428 
R squared 0.957  0.957 0.977  0.977 0.992  0.992 

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

Standard errors in parentheses.

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