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Table 3

Coefficient of WaSH aid variable on under-five mortality rate in countries with and without potential constraints on effectiveness (instrumental variable model)

ConstraintCountries with constraint (test group)
Countries without constraint (control group)
Under-5 mortalityImproved waterImproved sanitationUnder-5 mortalityImproved waterImproved sanitation
Low democracy (Polity2 score <5) 0.006 (0.010) 0.254*** (0.066) 0.194*** (0.076) −0.009 (0.008) 0.360*** (0.070) 0.040 (0.041) 
High autocracy (Polity2 score < −4) 0.023* (0.014) 0.359*** (0.125) 0.417** (0.185) −0.003 (0.011) 0.255*** (0.051) 0.057 (0.036) 
Closed to trade (Trade <50% of GDP) 0.016 (0.018) 0.067 (0.106) −0.225 (0.169) −0.006 (0.011) 0.279*** (0.053) 0.154*** (0.051) 
Poor rule of law (Rule of law score < −0.6) −0.013 (0.011) 0.192** (0.090) 0.042 (0.034) −0.067*** (0.024) 0.105*** (0.032) 0.128** (0.050) 
Ineffective governance (Effectiveness score < −0.5) 0.003 (0.011) 0.082 (0.092) 0.0419 (0.043) −0.072*** (0.017) 0.146*** (0.042) 0.043*** (0.016) 
Low corruption control (Corruption control score < −0.5) 0.001 (0.012) 0.133*** (0.030) 0.024 (0.0297) −0.084** (0.035) 0.084*** (0.021) 0.112*** (0.025) 
Poor regulatory quality (Regulatory quality score < −0.4) 0.003 (0.006) 0.083 (0.085) 0.090 (0.071) −0.016** (0.008) 0.165*** (0.043) 0.121*** (0.048) 
Poor voice and accountability (Accountability score < −0.5) 0.015 (0.011) 0.135 (0.096) 0.158*** (0.070) −0.009 (0.017) 0.408*** (0.063) 0.012 (0.053) 
Low water availability (<5,000 m3 freshwater per capita) 0.005 (0.010) 0.339*** (0.073) 0.194*** (0.070) −0.050*** (0.011) 0.299*** (0.063) 0.026 (0.055) 
Large rural population (Rural population >50%) 0.003 (0.014) 0.429 (0.790) 0.094 (0.086) −0.072*** (0.019) 0.158*** (0.054) 0.162*** (0.048) 
ConstraintCountries with constraint (test group)
Countries without constraint (control group)
Under-5 mortalityImproved waterImproved sanitationUnder-5 mortalityImproved waterImproved sanitation
Low democracy (Polity2 score <5) 0.006 (0.010) 0.254*** (0.066) 0.194*** (0.076) −0.009 (0.008) 0.360*** (0.070) 0.040 (0.041) 
High autocracy (Polity2 score < −4) 0.023* (0.014) 0.359*** (0.125) 0.417** (0.185) −0.003 (0.011) 0.255*** (0.051) 0.057 (0.036) 
Closed to trade (Trade <50% of GDP) 0.016 (0.018) 0.067 (0.106) −0.225 (0.169) −0.006 (0.011) 0.279*** (0.053) 0.154*** (0.051) 
Poor rule of law (Rule of law score < −0.6) −0.013 (0.011) 0.192** (0.090) 0.042 (0.034) −0.067*** (0.024) 0.105*** (0.032) 0.128** (0.050) 
Ineffective governance (Effectiveness score < −0.5) 0.003 (0.011) 0.082 (0.092) 0.0419 (0.043) −0.072*** (0.017) 0.146*** (0.042) 0.043*** (0.016) 
Low corruption control (Corruption control score < −0.5) 0.001 (0.012) 0.133*** (0.030) 0.024 (0.0297) −0.084** (0.035) 0.084*** (0.021) 0.112*** (0.025) 
Poor regulatory quality (Regulatory quality score < −0.4) 0.003 (0.006) 0.083 (0.085) 0.090 (0.071) −0.016** (0.008) 0.165*** (0.043) 0.121*** (0.048) 
Poor voice and accountability (Accountability score < −0.5) 0.015 (0.011) 0.135 (0.096) 0.158*** (0.070) −0.009 (0.017) 0.408*** (0.063) 0.012 (0.053) 
Low water availability (<5,000 m3 freshwater per capita) 0.005 (0.010) 0.339*** (0.073) 0.194*** (0.070) −0.050*** (0.011) 0.299*** (0.063) 0.026 (0.055) 
Large rural population (Rural population >50%) 0.003 (0.014) 0.429 (0.790) 0.094 (0.086) −0.072*** (0.019) 0.158*** (0.054) 0.162*** (0.048) 

*p < 0.10; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01.

Standard errors in parentheses.

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