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Table 1

Summary of average performance data or average effluent concentrations for experimental and control CSADs during the entire operating period

ParameterFormUnitsExperimental
Control
Phase IPhase IIPhase IIIPhase IPhase IIPhase III
Biogas production rate – L·d−1 11.99 ± 5.9a (n = 90) 11.87 ± 5.4 (n = 14) 10.21 ± 3 (n = 31) 11.92 ± 6a (n = 90) 11.59 ± 5.5 (n = 14) 10.36 ± 3 (n = 31) 
COD concentration TCOD g·L−1 17.93 ± 0.6 (n = 20) 18.75 ± 0.5 (n = 4) 20.04 ± 0.9 (n = 4) 17.18 ± 0.62 (n = 20) 18.77 ± 0.71 (n = 4) 19.82 ± 0.41 (n = 4) 
SCOD mg·L−1 272.4 ± 13.7 (n = 21) 256.9 ± 10.3 (n = 5) 287.1 ± 12.2 (n = 5) 269.9 ± 10.6 (n = 21) 262.3 ± 9.8 (n = 5) 257.9 ± 14.1 (n = 5) 
COD removal efficiency TCOD 58.9 ± 7.7 (n = 20) 63.75 ± 2.9 (n = 4) 68.10 ± 11.2 (n = 4) 62.63 ± 8.7 (n = 20) 62.12 ± 3.2 (n = 4) 60.81 ± 16.7 (n = 4) 
SCOD 79.60 ± 9.5 (n = 21) 86.80 ± 8.2 (n = 4) 91.75 ± 1.2 (n = 4) 79.70 ± 9.8 (n = 21) 84.64 ± 8.5 (n = 4) 91.02 ± 1.5 (n = 4) 
TVFA concentration – mg·L−1 55.2 70.6 51.2 45.2 54.05 55.2 
Ammonia concentration mg·L−1 728.4 945.4 778.4 726.8 910.7 745.8 
Solids concentration TS g·L−1 18.42 ± 0.11 (n = 10) 21.25 ± 0.14 (n = 4) 18.23 ± 0.37 (n = 5) 18.89 ± 0.69 (n = 10) 22.03 ± 0.09 (n = 4) 17.86 ± 0.11 (n = 5) 
VS g·L−1 10.68 ± 0.12 (n = 10) 11.69 ± 0.12 (n = 4) 9.68 ± 0.18 (n = 5) 11.10 ± 0.62 (n = 10) 12.26 ± 0.05 (n = 4) 9.57 ± 0.09 (n = 5) 
Solids removal efficiency TS %
56.53 ± 5.4 (n = 10) 57.54 ± 2.0 (n = 4) 58.52 ± 6.4 (n = 5) 59.12 ± 5.3 (n = 10) 55.51 ± 2.3 (n = 4) 53.23 ± 13.8 (n = 5) 
VS 61.05 ± 4.9 (n = 10) 63.98 ± 3.0 (n = 4) 61.84 ± 7.0 (n = 5) 62.74 ± 4.8 (n = 10) 60.52 ± 2.1 (n = 4) 56.13 ± 15.7 (n = 5) 
Alkalinity CaCO3 mg·L−1 3,750 3,680 3,640 3,690 3,700 3,620 
pH – – 7.09 ± 0.21 (n = 90) 6.91 ± 0.12 (n = 14) 6.92 ± 0.16 (n = 31) 7.11 ± 0.17 (n = 90) 6.93 ± 0.14 (n = 14) 6.94 ± 0.15 (n = 31) 
ParameterFormUnitsExperimental
Control
Phase IPhase IIPhase IIIPhase IPhase IIPhase III
Biogas production rate – L·d−1 11.99 ± 5.9a (n = 90) 11.87 ± 5.4 (n = 14) 10.21 ± 3 (n = 31) 11.92 ± 6a (n = 90) 11.59 ± 5.5 (n = 14) 10.36 ± 3 (n = 31) 
COD concentration TCOD g·L−1 17.93 ± 0.6 (n = 20) 18.75 ± 0.5 (n = 4) 20.04 ± 0.9 (n = 4) 17.18 ± 0.62 (n = 20) 18.77 ± 0.71 (n = 4) 19.82 ± 0.41 (n = 4) 
SCOD mg·L−1 272.4 ± 13.7 (n = 21) 256.9 ± 10.3 (n = 5) 287.1 ± 12.2 (n = 5) 269.9 ± 10.6 (n = 21) 262.3 ± 9.8 (n = 5) 257.9 ± 14.1 (n = 5) 
COD removal efficiency TCOD 58.9 ± 7.7 (n = 20) 63.75 ± 2.9 (n = 4) 68.10 ± 11.2 (n = 4) 62.63 ± 8.7 (n = 20) 62.12 ± 3.2 (n = 4) 60.81 ± 16.7 (n = 4) 
SCOD 79.60 ± 9.5 (n = 21) 86.80 ± 8.2 (n = 4) 91.75 ± 1.2 (n = 4) 79.70 ± 9.8 (n = 21) 84.64 ± 8.5 (n = 4) 91.02 ± 1.5 (n = 4) 
TVFA concentration – mg·L−1 55.2 70.6 51.2 45.2 54.05 55.2 
Ammonia concentration mg·L−1 728.4 945.4 778.4 726.8 910.7 745.8 
Solids concentration TS g·L−1 18.42 ± 0.11 (n = 10) 21.25 ± 0.14 (n = 4) 18.23 ± 0.37 (n = 5) 18.89 ± 0.69 (n = 10) 22.03 ± 0.09 (n = 4) 17.86 ± 0.11 (n = 5) 
VS g·L−1 10.68 ± 0.12 (n = 10) 11.69 ± 0.12 (n = 4) 9.68 ± 0.18 (n = 5) 11.10 ± 0.62 (n = 10) 12.26 ± 0.05 (n = 4) 9.57 ± 0.09 (n = 5) 
Solids removal efficiency TS %
56.53 ± 5.4 (n = 10) 57.54 ± 2.0 (n = 4) 58.52 ± 6.4 (n = 5) 59.12 ± 5.3 (n = 10) 55.51 ± 2.3 (n = 4) 53.23 ± 13.8 (n = 5) 
VS 61.05 ± 4.9 (n = 10) 63.98 ± 3.0 (n = 4) 61.84 ± 7.0 (n = 5) 62.74 ± 4.8 (n = 10) 60.52 ± 2.1 (n = 4) 56.13 ± 15.7 (n = 5) 
Alkalinity CaCO3 mg·L−1 3,750 3,680 3,640 3,690 3,700 3,620 
pH – – 7.09 ± 0.21 (n = 90) 6.91 ± 0.12 (n = 14) 6.92 ± 0.16 (n = 31) 7.11 ± 0.17 (n = 90) 6.93 ± 0.14 (n = 14) 6.94 ± 0.15 (n = 31) 

aFirst 30 days excluded for both CSADs. In addition, a correction factor of 0.704 L·d−1 was subtracted from all the data through days 30–180 for only the experimental CSAD due to an experimental error in biogas production measurement. Error bars represent the standard deviation of the measurements.

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