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Table 2

Seasonal water quality improvement effects

Water quality improvement effect
Type of biofilmT1
T2
T3
T4
SeasonSpring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
HRT0 d5 d0 d5 d0 d5 d0 d5 d
CODMn (mg·L−110.30 ± 0.52 7.25 ± 0.36 9.84 ± 0.49 8.29 ± 0.41 10.21 ± 0.51 5.25 ± 0.28 9.72 ± 0.49 8.01 ± 0.40 
NH3-N (mg·L−12.39 ± 0.12 1.72 ± 0.09 2.38 ± 0.12 2.05 ± 0.10 2.43 ± 0.12 1.46 ± 0.07 2.42 ± 0.12 1.81 ± 0.09 
NO3-N (mg·L−12.89 ± 0.14 1.92 ± 0.10 2.84 ± 0.14 2.42 ± 0.12 2.86 ± 0.14 1.71 ± 0.09 2.87 ± 0.14 2.12 ± 0.11 
TN (mg·L−16.21 ± 0.31 4.69 ± 0.23 6.17 ± 0.30 5.59 ± 0.28 6.02 ± 0.30 3.46 ± 0.17 6.23 ± 0.31 4.97 ± 0.25 
TP (mg·L−10.223 ± 0.011 0.157 ± .008 0.211 ± 0.011 0.183 ± 0.009 0.218 ± 0.011 0.140 ± 0.007 0.218 ± 0.011 0.161 ± 0.008 
Water quality improvement effect
Type of biofilmT1
T2
T3
T4
SeasonSpring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
HRT0 d5 d0 d5 d0 d5 d0 d5 d
CODMn (mg·L−110.30 ± 0.52 7.25 ± 0.36 9.84 ± 0.49 8.29 ± 0.41 10.21 ± 0.51 5.25 ± 0.28 9.72 ± 0.49 8.01 ± 0.40 
NH3-N (mg·L−12.39 ± 0.12 1.72 ± 0.09 2.38 ± 0.12 2.05 ± 0.10 2.43 ± 0.12 1.46 ± 0.07 2.42 ± 0.12 1.81 ± 0.09 
NO3-N (mg·L−12.89 ± 0.14 1.92 ± 0.10 2.84 ± 0.14 2.42 ± 0.12 2.86 ± 0.14 1.71 ± 0.09 2.87 ± 0.14 2.12 ± 0.11 
TN (mg·L−16.21 ± 0.31 4.69 ± 0.23 6.17 ± 0.30 5.59 ± 0.28 6.02 ± 0.30 3.46 ± 0.17 6.23 ± 0.31 4.97 ± 0.25 
TP (mg·L−10.223 ± 0.011 0.157 ± .008 0.211 ± 0.011 0.183 ± 0.009 0.218 ± 0.011 0.140 ± 0.007 0.218 ± 0.011 0.161 ± 0.008 

COD, chemical oxygen demand; NH3-N, ammoniacal nitrogen; NO3-N, nitrate nitrogen; TN, total nitrogen; TP, total phosphorus.

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