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Table 1

Descriptions of climate indices used in this study

IndicesAcronym (data length)Source organization and associated websiteReferences
El Niño-Southern Oscillation index ENSO (1882–2013) Met Office Hadley Centre, http://hadobs.metoffice.gov.uk/hadisst/ Rayner et al. (2003)  
North Atlantic Oscillation NAO (1882–2013) Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/nao/ Hurrell (1995)  
Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO (1900–2013) Joint Institute for the study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, http://research.jisao.washington.edu/pdo/ Trenberth & Hurrell (1994)  
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation QBO (1948–2013) Physical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/climateindices/list/ Naujokat (1986)  
Indian Ocean Dipole IOD (1882–2013) Low-latitude Climate Prediction Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frsgc/research/d1/iod/e/iod/about_iod.html Saji et al. (1999)  
Northern Hemisphere temperature N.H (1882–2013) Met Office Hadley Centre, http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadcrut4/ Morice et al. (2012)  
IndicesAcronym (data length)Source organization and associated websiteReferences
El Niño-Southern Oscillation index ENSO (1882–2013) Met Office Hadley Centre, http://hadobs.metoffice.gov.uk/hadisst/ Rayner et al. (2003)  
North Atlantic Oscillation NAO (1882–2013) Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/nao/ Hurrell (1995)  
Pacific Decadal Oscillation PDO (1900–2013) Joint Institute for the study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, http://research.jisao.washington.edu/pdo/ Trenberth & Hurrell (1994)  
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation QBO (1948–2013) Physical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/climateindices/list/ Naujokat (1986)  
Indian Ocean Dipole IOD (1882–2013) Low-latitude Climate Prediction Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frsgc/research/d1/iod/e/iod/about_iod.html Saji et al. (1999)  
Northern Hemisphere temperature N.H (1882–2013) Met Office Hadley Centre, http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/hadcrut4/ Morice et al. (2012)  
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