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Table 3

Pros and cons of different water supply solutions compared with coastal reservoirs

Water supply solutionProsCons
Conventional dams 
  • 1) Mature technology

 
  • 1) Limited lifecycle

  • 2) Devastating environmental impact (flooding)

  • 3)

    3) Far from demand – high cost for pipes

  • 4) Ineffective water harvesting

 
Desalination plant 
  • 1) Unlimited water from the sea

  • 2)

    2) Ideal for no or very limited rain

 
  • 1) Limited lifecycle

  • 2)

    2) Requires enormous amount of energy

  • 3) Large amount of waste (salt)

  • 4)

    4) Very expensive to build, maintain and operate

 
Storm water harvesting 
  • 1) Low-cost water harvesting

  • 2) Long lifecycle

 
  • 1) Land conversion (environmental impact)

  • 2) Limited storage capabilities

  • 3) Redundant during drought

 
Wastewater reuse 
  • 1) Low-cost water harvesting

  • 2) Long lifecycle

  • 3) Consistent supply

 
  • 1) Not suitable for human consumption

  • 2) Limited maximum output

  • 3) Expensive to build, maintain and operate

 
Groundwater 
  • 1) High chances of quality water

  • 2) Low-cost water harvesting

 
  • 1) Groundwater depletion

  • 2) Sinking of land

  • 3) Intrusion of salt water

  • 4) Exposed to contamination

 
Coastal reservoirs 
  • 1) No land acquisition

  • 2) Cost effective

  • 3) Sustainable

  • 4) Effective method to harvest water

  • 5) Multi-functional

  • 6) Harvest of energy

  • 7) Free of risk like dam breaching

  • 8) Recreational and urban regeneration

  • 9) Additional space would be created and new cities around the freshwater body can be created

 
  • 1) Transportation of water can be costly to towns uphill

  • 2) Proper care needs to be taken to allow fish breeding in rivers

  • 3) Regular desilting required

  • 4) Issue of environmental clearance

 
Water supply solutionProsCons
Conventional dams 
  • 1) Mature technology

 
  • 1) Limited lifecycle

  • 2) Devastating environmental impact (flooding)

  • 3)

    3) Far from demand – high cost for pipes

  • 4) Ineffective water harvesting

 
Desalination plant 
  • 1) Unlimited water from the sea

  • 2)

    2) Ideal for no or very limited rain

 
  • 1) Limited lifecycle

  • 2)

    2) Requires enormous amount of energy

  • 3) Large amount of waste (salt)

  • 4)

    4) Very expensive to build, maintain and operate

 
Storm water harvesting 
  • 1) Low-cost water harvesting

  • 2) Long lifecycle

 
  • 1) Land conversion (environmental impact)

  • 2) Limited storage capabilities

  • 3) Redundant during drought

 
Wastewater reuse 
  • 1) Low-cost water harvesting

  • 2) Long lifecycle

  • 3) Consistent supply

 
  • 1) Not suitable for human consumption

  • 2) Limited maximum output

  • 3) Expensive to build, maintain and operate

 
Groundwater 
  • 1) High chances of quality water

  • 2) Low-cost water harvesting

 
  • 1) Groundwater depletion

  • 2) Sinking of land

  • 3) Intrusion of salt water

  • 4) Exposed to contamination

 
Coastal reservoirs 
  • 1) No land acquisition

  • 2) Cost effective

  • 3) Sustainable

  • 4) Effective method to harvest water

  • 5) Multi-functional

  • 6) Harvest of energy

  • 7) Free of risk like dam breaching

  • 8) Recreational and urban regeneration

  • 9) Additional space would be created and new cities around the freshwater body can be created

 
  • 1) Transportation of water can be costly to towns uphill

  • 2) Proper care needs to be taken to allow fish breeding in rivers

  • 3) Regular desilting required

  • 4) Issue of environmental clearance

 
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