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Table 5

Difference between inland reservoirs and coastal reservoirs

ParameterInland reservoir1st generation coastal reservoir2nd generation coastal reservoir
Water quality Good (virgin catchment) Poor (collect and store all contaminants) Good (only collect clean water, by-pass polluted water) 
Water level Variable water level, above sea level Variable water level near sea level Almost constant water level near sea level 
Dam alignment 90° with flow direction 90° with flow direction Small angle with flow direction 
Dam site Limited (require narrow width or Gorge) Limited (only inside a river mouth) Unlimited (inside/outside river mouth) 
Dam design High pressure, concrete, earth/rock Low pressure but with wave/tidal surge, concrete, earth/rock Low pressure but with wave/tidal surge, concrete, earth/rock with/without soft dam 
Dam length Short Short Long 
Environmental impacts High Median (obstruction to flood water, fish, navigation) Low 
Seepage By pressure difference By density difference By density difference 
Pollutant Land-based Land-based + seawater Land-based + seawater 
Emigrant cost High No No 
Water supply By gravity By pump By pump 
Water from % of catchment 10%–50% 100% 100% 
ParameterInland reservoir1st generation coastal reservoir2nd generation coastal reservoir
Water quality Good (virgin catchment) Poor (collect and store all contaminants) Good (only collect clean water, by-pass polluted water) 
Water level Variable water level, above sea level Variable water level near sea level Almost constant water level near sea level 
Dam alignment 90° with flow direction 90° with flow direction Small angle with flow direction 
Dam site Limited (require narrow width or Gorge) Limited (only inside a river mouth) Unlimited (inside/outside river mouth) 
Dam design High pressure, concrete, earth/rock Low pressure but with wave/tidal surge, concrete, earth/rock Low pressure but with wave/tidal surge, concrete, earth/rock with/without soft dam 
Dam length Short Short Long 
Environmental impacts High Median (obstruction to flood water, fish, navigation) Low 
Seepage By pressure difference By density difference By density difference 
Pollutant Land-based Land-based + seawater Land-based + seawater 
Emigrant cost High No No 
Water supply By gravity By pump By pump 
Water from % of catchment 10%–50% 100% 100% 
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