Following this, the authors have looked into the governance of keeping open the options to switch from one strategy to another. In Tables 6 and 7 the authors have attempted to identify actions that could be undertaken in the institutional and socio-cultural domain in anticipation of a possible switch from strategy 1 to strategy 2 and from strategy 1 to strategy 3, respectively. The switch from enlarging the water storage capacity in Lake IJsselmeer to reducing water demand implies a shift from water management authorities taking responsibility for fresh water supply towards famers being responsible themselves. Self evidently, such a shift cannot be governed easily to the extent that it is a rather autonomous societal process. Anticipating actions are limited to raising awareness and communication, and preparing the community that responsibilities might change in the future.

Table 6

Anticipative actions to keep the option open to transfer from strategy 1 to strategy 2

DomainAnticipative actions to keep option open to transfer to strategy 2ActorsGovernance level of complexity
Institutional – – – 
Social Creating awareness by the famers that water supply in the future might no longer be the responsibility of the water management authorities Water management authorities 
Economic Prevent investments that take a long time to pay off Farmers, private companies, banks 
Knowledge – – – 
DomainAnticipative actions to keep option open to transfer to strategy 2ActorsGovernance level of complexity
Institutional – – – 
Social Creating awareness by the famers that water supply in the future might no longer be the responsibility of the water management authorities Water management authorities 
Economic Prevent investments that take a long time to pay off Farmers, private companies, banks 
Knowledge – – – 
Table 7

Anticipative actions to keep the option open to transfer from strategy 1 to strategy 3

DomainAnticipative actions to keep option open to transfer to strategy 3Governance level of complexityGovernance level of complexity
Institutional – – – 
Social Creating awareness by the public that other land use is a real option Local community 
Economic Prevent investments that take a long time to pay off Private companies, Banks 
Knowledge – – – 
DomainAnticipative actions to keep option open to transfer to strategy 3Governance level of complexityGovernance level of complexity
Institutional – – – 
Social Creating awareness by the public that other land use is a real option Local community 
Economic Prevent investments that take a long time to pay off Private companies, Banks 
Knowledge – – – 

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