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Table 1

Ostrom's design principles for managing a common-pool resource

1. Clearly Defined Boundaries 
Individuals or households with rights to withdraw resource units from the common-pool resource are clearly defined, as are its boundaries 
2. Congruence 
A. Appropriation rules define a distribution of benefits that is roughly proportionate to the costs imposed by provision rules 
B. Appropriation rules restricting time, place, technology, and/or quantity of resource units are appropriate for local conditions 
3. Collective-Choice Arrangements 
Most individuals affected by rules regulating operation of the resource can participate in modifying those rules 
4. Monitoring 
Monitors, who actively audit common-pool resource conditions and appropriator behaviour, are accountable to the appropriators and/or are the appropriators themselves 
5. Graduated Sanctions 
Appropriators who violate operational rules are likely to receive graduated sanctions (depending on the seriousness and context of the offence) from other appropriators, from officials accountable to these appropriators, or from both 
6. Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms 
Appropriators and their officials have rapid access to low-cost, local arenas to resolve conflict among appropriators or between appropriators and officials 
7. Minimal Recognition of Rights to Organize 
The rights of appropriators to devise their own institutions are not challenged by external governmental authorities 
8. Nested Enterprises 
Appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of enterprises, nested from the lowest level up to the entire interconnected system 
1. Clearly Defined Boundaries 
Individuals or households with rights to withdraw resource units from the common-pool resource are clearly defined, as are its boundaries 
2. Congruence 
A. Appropriation rules define a distribution of benefits that is roughly proportionate to the costs imposed by provision rules 
B. Appropriation rules restricting time, place, technology, and/or quantity of resource units are appropriate for local conditions 
3. Collective-Choice Arrangements 
Most individuals affected by rules regulating operation of the resource can participate in modifying those rules 
4. Monitoring 
Monitors, who actively audit common-pool resource conditions and appropriator behaviour, are accountable to the appropriators and/or are the appropriators themselves 
5. Graduated Sanctions 
Appropriators who violate operational rules are likely to receive graduated sanctions (depending on the seriousness and context of the offence) from other appropriators, from officials accountable to these appropriators, or from both 
6. Conflict-Resolution Mechanisms 
Appropriators and their officials have rapid access to low-cost, local arenas to resolve conflict among appropriators or between appropriators and officials 
7. Minimal Recognition of Rights to Organize 
The rights of appropriators to devise their own institutions are not challenged by external governmental authorities 
8. Nested Enterprises 
Appropriation, provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict resolution and governance activities are organized in multiple layers of enterprises, nested from the lowest level up to the entire interconnected system 

Adapted from Ostrom (2002).

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