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Table 1

Funding mechanism descriptions (variable fees)

MethodDescription
Distributed Alternative Transportation (DAT) DAT considers the municipal roads runoff management and calculates the approximate cost based on the average trips generated by a specific user. This component is added to the residential stormwater fee. 
Equivalent Residential Unit (ERU) Funding mechanisms that determine usage based on the impervious area. One ERU is equivalent to the average amount of impervious area on residential properties. Typically, a charge is assessed per ERU used. 
Meter Funding mechanisms that charge based on the size of a parcel's water meter (often exhibited in tier systems). 
Parcel acre Funding mechanisms that charge a rate per parcel acre of imperviousness. 
Residential Equivalence Factor (REF) Funding mechanisms that determine usage using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) runoff method or rational method. 
Square foot (sq. ft) Funding mechanisms that charge a rate per parcel sq. ft of imperviousness. 
Tier A system where consumers are categorized by quantifiable (such as the magnitude of impervious area or water use) or qualitative factors (such as land use type or water meter size) and charged accordingly. In many cases, a flat fee is charged for various ranges of impervious areas. 
Two level/dual (residential/commercial) Funding mechanisms that assess different rates or use different methods (often fixed rate and ERU) for commercial and residential properties. 
Usage Funding mechanisms that charge according to parcel water usage (volume of runoff and rate at which runoff is produced). Runoff volume and rates can be determined using a number of factors (usually the impervious area is used). 
MethodDescription
Distributed Alternative Transportation (DAT) DAT considers the municipal roads runoff management and calculates the approximate cost based on the average trips generated by a specific user. This component is added to the residential stormwater fee. 
Equivalent Residential Unit (ERU) Funding mechanisms that determine usage based on the impervious area. One ERU is equivalent to the average amount of impervious area on residential properties. Typically, a charge is assessed per ERU used. 
Meter Funding mechanisms that charge based on the size of a parcel's water meter (often exhibited in tier systems). 
Parcel acre Funding mechanisms that charge a rate per parcel acre of imperviousness. 
Residential Equivalence Factor (REF) Funding mechanisms that determine usage using the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) runoff method or rational method. 
Square foot (sq. ft) Funding mechanisms that charge a rate per parcel sq. ft of imperviousness. 
Tier A system where consumers are categorized by quantifiable (such as the magnitude of impervious area or water use) or qualitative factors (such as land use type or water meter size) and charged accordingly. In many cases, a flat fee is charged for various ranges of impervious areas. 
Two level/dual (residential/commercial) Funding mechanisms that assess different rates or use different methods (often fixed rate and ERU) for commercial and residential properties. 
Usage Funding mechanisms that charge according to parcel water usage (volume of runoff and rate at which runoff is produced). Runoff volume and rates can be determined using a number of factors (usually the impervious area is used). 

Source: Adapted from Kea et al. (2016).

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