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Table 4

Water quality characteristics of effluent from three filtration setups

Water qualityOutlet 1 – Terracotta
Outlet 2 – Gravel
Outlet 3 – Cinder
ParameterHLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2HLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2HLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2
Mean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. Dev
pH 7.34 ± 0.33 7.3 ± 0.88 7.9 ± 0.38 7.5 ± 0.65 7.4 ± 0.44 7.5 ± 0.90 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 1,779 ± 102.5 1,644 ± 121 1,669 ± 77 1,649 ± 94 1,704 ± 43 1,700 ± 140 
BOD5 (mg/L) 26 ± 15 69 ± 22 34 ± 24 81 ± 18 127 ± 43 102 ± 50 
COD (mg/L) 104.2 ± 24.2 232.5 ± 84.2 115.8 ± 45.8 292.0 ± 100.1 143.3 ± 75.8 260 ± 117.4 
Ammonia – N (mg/L) 17.0 ± 6.0 19.5 ± 2.0 14.5 ± 6.3 16.5 ± 1.2 22 ± 10 19.5 ± 1 
Nitrate – N (mg/L) 1.7 ± 0.88 2.7 ± 2.0 1.2 ± 0.45 3.6 ± 4.2 1.0 ± 0.50 0.70 ± 1.17 
Log10FC (MPN/100 mL) 3.3 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 1.0 
Water qualityOutlet 1 – Terracotta
Outlet 2 – Gravel
Outlet 3 – Cinder
ParameterHLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2HLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2HLR − 4 cm/m2HLR − 40 cm/m2
Mean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. DevMean ± Std. Dev
pH 7.34 ± 0.33 7.3 ± 0.88 7.9 ± 0.38 7.5 ± 0.65 7.4 ± 0.44 7.5 ± 0.90 
Conductivity (μS/cm) 1,779 ± 102.5 1,644 ± 121 1,669 ± 77 1,649 ± 94 1,704 ± 43 1,700 ± 140 
BOD5 (mg/L) 26 ± 15 69 ± 22 34 ± 24 81 ± 18 127 ± 43 102 ± 50 
COD (mg/L) 104.2 ± 24.2 232.5 ± 84.2 115.8 ± 45.8 292.0 ± 100.1 143.3 ± 75.8 260 ± 117.4 
Ammonia – N (mg/L) 17.0 ± 6.0 19.5 ± 2.0 14.5 ± 6.3 16.5 ± 1.2 22 ± 10 19.5 ± 1 
Nitrate – N (mg/L) 1.7 ± 0.88 2.7 ± 2.0 1.2 ± 0.45 3.6 ± 4.2 1.0 ± 0.50 0.70 ± 1.17 
Log10FC (MPN/100 mL) 3.3 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 1.0 
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