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Table 7

Overview of main research works on sonochemical oxidation of phenolic compounds in recent years

PhenolsExperimental conditionsMain resultsReferences
p-nitrophenol Power = 84 W
frequency = 20 kHz
T = 30 °C, pH = 5 
The p-nitrophenol reduction fit the first order kinetics model with current-dependent parameters
The reaction products are: NO2-,NO3-, benzoquinone
hydroquinone, 4nitrocatecho1, formate, and oxalate 
Kotronarou et al. (1991)  
Phenol Power = 30 W
frequency = 20, 487 kHz
T = 25 °C 
After 300 min sonication, the degradation rate of phenolic pollutants is higher at 487 kHz than at 20 kHz Petrier et al. (1994)  
p-nitrophenol Frequency = 321 kHz
T = 25 °C, pH 4–10
Water-absorbed power = 170 W/kg 
A detailed study on the sonolysis of 4-nitrophenol in argon-saturated solution
The reaction products are: NO2-,NO3-, 4-Nitrocatechol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, 4-aminophenol 
Tauber et al. (2000)  
2-, 3- and 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol Power = 200 W
Frequency = 200 kHz
Under air and argon atmosphere 
A total degradation rate under argon and 80–90% after one-hour of sonolysis Nagata et al. (2000)  
p-chlorophenol Three different ultrasonic devices used:
Probe and cup-horn system: Power = 475 W, frequency = 20 kHz
Beaker system: Power = 850 W, frequency = 850 kHz
T = 35–39 °C, atmospheric pressure 
After 20 min sonication, over 2, 25 and 50% degradation was achieved in cup-horn, beaker and probe respectively.
The degradation of intermediate products follow a first-order kinetic rate
The reaction products are: hydroquinone, 1, 4-benzoquinone, 4-chlorocatechol, 4-chlororesorcinol 
Teo et al. (2001)  
p-coumaric and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde Power = 150 W
Frequency = 80 kHz
T = 25–70 °C 
After 150 min sonication, 56 and 60% of COD and polyphenols have been removed Vassilakis et al. (2004)  
Phenol, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) Power = 200 W
Frequency = 580 kHz
T = 20 °C 
After 40 min sonication, the degradation rate of chlorinated phenolic pollutants followed the order: 580 kHz (91–93%) >1,000 kHz (84–86%) >28 kHz (17–34%)
The degradation rate followed the order: PCP > 2,3,4,6-TeCP >2,4,6-TCP > 2,6- DCP >4-CP > phenol at various frequencies 
Park et al. (2011)  
PhenolsExperimental conditionsMain resultsReferences
p-nitrophenol Power = 84 W
frequency = 20 kHz
T = 30 °C, pH = 5 
The p-nitrophenol reduction fit the first order kinetics model with current-dependent parameters
The reaction products are: NO2-,NO3-, benzoquinone
hydroquinone, 4nitrocatecho1, formate, and oxalate 
Kotronarou et al. (1991)  
Phenol Power = 30 W
frequency = 20, 487 kHz
T = 25 °C 
After 300 min sonication, the degradation rate of phenolic pollutants is higher at 487 kHz than at 20 kHz Petrier et al. (1994)  
p-nitrophenol Frequency = 321 kHz
T = 25 °C, pH 4–10
Water-absorbed power = 170 W/kg 
A detailed study on the sonolysis of 4-nitrophenol in argon-saturated solution
The reaction products are: NO2-,NO3-, 4-Nitrocatechol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, 4-aminophenol 
Tauber et al. (2000)  
2-, 3- and 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol Power = 200 W
Frequency = 200 kHz
Under air and argon atmosphere 
A total degradation rate under argon and 80–90% after one-hour of sonolysis Nagata et al. (2000)  
p-chlorophenol Three different ultrasonic devices used:
Probe and cup-horn system: Power = 475 W, frequency = 20 kHz
Beaker system: Power = 850 W, frequency = 850 kHz
T = 35–39 °C, atmospheric pressure 
After 20 min sonication, over 2, 25 and 50% degradation was achieved in cup-horn, beaker and probe respectively.
The degradation of intermediate products follow a first-order kinetic rate
The reaction products are: hydroquinone, 1, 4-benzoquinone, 4-chlorocatechol, 4-chlororesorcinol 
Teo et al. (2001)  
p-coumaric and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde Power = 150 W
Frequency = 80 kHz
T = 25–70 °C 
After 150 min sonication, 56 and 60% of COD and polyphenols have been removed Vassilakis et al. (2004)  
Phenol, 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) Power = 200 W
Frequency = 580 kHz
T = 20 °C 
After 40 min sonication, the degradation rate of chlorinated phenolic pollutants followed the order: 580 kHz (91–93%) >1,000 kHz (84–86%) >28 kHz (17–34%)
The degradation rate followed the order: PCP > 2,3,4,6-TeCP >2,4,6-TCP > 2,6- DCP >4-CP > phenol at various frequencies 
Park et al. (2011)  
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