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Table 11

Main results reported for the treatment of OMW by means of AOP combined with physico-chemical treatments

Advanced oxidation processesPhysico-chemical processesExperimental conditionsMain resultsReferences
Fenton's process Coagulation–flocculation pH: 5.1–5.3
[Fe2+]: 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L
[H2O2]: 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 g/L.
Lime concentration: 0–230 mg/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation–flocculation alone leads to 99.7, 78.8 and 35.5% of TSS, TPh and COD reduction, respectively

  • (ii)

    The combined process leads to 98.7, 84.9 and 61.4% of TSS, TPh and COD reduction, respectively

 
Ginos et al. (2006)  
Fenton's process Coagulation/flocculation pH: 3.5
Temperature: 30 °C
H2O2/Fe2+: 15
H2O2/COD : 0.25–3 
  • (i)

    In the Fenton's process, 96.8% of COD has been achieved

  • (ii)

    A stronger COD reduction (99.3%) with the combined system

 
Lucas & Peres (2009a, 2009b)  
Fenton's process Acid cracking (AC) + lime + anionic/cationic polyelectrolyte (AP, CP) pH: 1.7–9.2
[Fe2+]: 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L
[H2O2]: 750 mg/L 
  • (i)

    The pre-treatment by AC, AC + AP (5 ppm), AC + AP (10 ppm), lime and lime +AP (9 ppm) leads to a reduction of 72.5, 81.17, 73.85, 56.32 and 41.83% of COD, respectively

  • (ii)

    Fenton's oxidation after AC and CP (10 ppm) treatment leads to 89% of COD removal

 
Gomec et al. (2007)  
Fenton's process Acid cracking (AC) + coagulation pH: 1.5–3.5
treatment time: 4 h
Temperature: 25 and 30 °C
[H2O2] = 0.12–0.5 M
[Fe2+] = 0.005–0.03 M 
  • (i)

    AC removes 47.3, 30.1, 64.3, and 59.1% of COD, TPh, color, and aromaticity, respectively

  • (ii)

    AC and Fenton process lead to 83, 98.6, 77, and 67% of COD, TPh, color and aromaticity, respectively

  • (iii)

    The increase in temperature from 25 to 30 °C does not have a significant influence on the efficiency of the process

 
Madani et al. (2015)  
Fenton's process Ion exchange (IE) pH: 1.5–4.5
[Fe2+]: 0–5 g/L
[H2O2]: 0–6 g/L 
  • (iv) In the Fenton's process, 80.7 and 98.2% of COD and TPh have been removed, respectively

  • (v) The tested resin Lewatit TP 207 shows a higher affinity (100% of iron removal efficiency) toward Fe3+ when compared with Fe2+ (35%)

 
Reis et al. (2018)  
Photo-Fenton process Coagulation-flocculation and solvent extraction pH: 3
Treatment time: 240 min
[FeSO4, 7H2O]: 3.33, 5 and 6.67 g/L
FLOCAN 23: 0.287, 0.07 and 0.14
[H2O2]: 0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/L
[Fe2+]: 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/L 
  • (i)

    The coagulation-flocculation leads to 97 ± 1.3, 72 ± 1.5, and 40 ± 1.3% of TSS, COD and TPh, respectively

  • (ii)

    36% of TPh recovery post-coagulation–flocculation was achieved by solvent extraction

  • (iii)

    73 ± 2.3 and 87 ± 3.1% removal efficiencies were achieved for COD and TPh, respectively, by combination with photo-Fenton process

 
Papaphilippou et al. (2013)  
Fenton like process Coagulation and acid cracking (AC) pH: 1.5–4
Treatment time: 0–400 min
Alum concentration: 1000–6000 mg/L
Ferric chloride concentration : 1000–6000 mg/L
Polyaluminum chloride concentration: 250–1500 mg/L
[H2O2]: 250–3000 mg/L
Zero valent iron concentration: 1–11 g/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation process removed 91.2% COD, 91.3% TPh, 98.9% TSS and 99.2% turbidity

  • (ii)

    The combined process increased the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.14 to 0.83

 
Yazdanbakhsh et al. (2015)  
Photocatalysis,
Fenton and photo-Fenton process 
Coagulation pH: 4.3–6
Treatment time: 1–2 h
[H2O2]/[FeSO4] ratio = 6000/600
and 15,000/1,852 (w/w)
Coagulant dose: 0–600 mg/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation by chitosan was shown to remove 81% of TSS

  • (ii)

    The combined photo-Fenton/coagulation system was found to be more efficient for COD removal (91%) compared to Fenton one (81%)

 
Rizzo et al. (2008)  
Photo-Fenton
Fenton process 
Acidification/coagulation/flocculation pH: 2.6 and 4.6
[H2O2]: 0, 15 and 30 g/L
[Fe2+]: 0, 2, 6 and 10 Mm
Coagulant dose: 0, 0.25 and 1 (w/w) 
  • (i)

    The acidification followed by Fenton process leads to 15 and 60% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

  • (ii)

    The acidification/coagulation/flocculation/Photo-Fenton system leads to 75 and 100% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

 
Gernjak et al. (2007)  
Ozonation
Photo-Fenton process (Fe(III)/air/solar light 
Centrifugation pH: 3
Treatment time: 60, 90 and 120 min
Flow-rate: 36 L/h 
  • (i)

    The pre-treatment by centrifugation leads to a reduction of 41.3% of COD

  • (ii)

    Ozonation alone leads to 31.5 and 63.6% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

  • (iii)

    Air/light with Fe(III)/Ozonation system leads to 40.3 and 75% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

 
Andreozzi et al. (2008)  
UV/H2O2 Lime treatment pH: 7
Temperature: 25 °C
Treatment time: 7 days
H2O2 (30%) doses: 1–10 mL/100 mL OMW 
  • (i)

    90% of color, 90% of phenol and 30% of lignin were removed by single UV/H2O2

  • (ii)

    The combination with lime yielded 99, 100 and 40% of color, phenol and lignin removals, respectively

 
Uğurlu & Kula (2007)  
UV/H2O2 Ultrafiltration (UF) pH: 4.5
Temperature: 27–37 °C
[H2O2] = 2*10–2
  • (i)

    94 and 100% of COD and TSS removal by using UF alone

  • (ii)

    In the combined process, 75% of the initial absorbance vanished after 40 min of irradiation

 
Drouiche et al. (2004)  
H2O2/UV
O3/UV 
Acid cracking (AC) + ferric coagulation pH: 2–8
Treatment time: 400–1,440 min
[H2O2]: 750 mg/L
Ozone flow-rate: 0.3 g/h 
  • (i)

    For acid cracking + ferric coagulation + O3/UV system, 98 and 99% of COD and TPh removal have been reached, respectively

  • (ii)

    For acid cracking + ferric coagulation H2O2/UV system, 99% of both COD and TPh removal has been reached

 
Kestioğlu et al. (2005)  
UV, O3, O3/UV and H2O2/UV

 
Coagulation/flocculation pH: 5.6–9
Treatment time: 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min
[H2O2]: 2%
Ozone flow-rate: 40 dm3/h 
  • (i)

    Over 10, 19, 37 and 39% of COD were removed by UV, O3, O3/UV and H2O2/UV process

  • (ii)

    The combined systems coagulation/O3, coagulation/O3-UV and coagulation/H2O2/UV lead to COD reduction rates of 90, 95 and 94%, respectively

 
Lafi et al. (2010)  
Advanced oxidation processesPhysico-chemical processesExperimental conditionsMain resultsReferences
Fenton's process Coagulation–flocculation pH: 5.1–5.3
[Fe2+]: 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L
[H2O2]: 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 g/L.
Lime concentration: 0–230 mg/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation–flocculation alone leads to 99.7, 78.8 and 35.5% of TSS, TPh and COD reduction, respectively

  • (ii)

    The combined process leads to 98.7, 84.9 and 61.4% of TSS, TPh and COD reduction, respectively

 
Ginos et al. (2006)  
Fenton's process Coagulation/flocculation pH: 3.5
Temperature: 30 °C
H2O2/Fe2+: 15
H2O2/COD : 0.25–3 
  • (i)

    In the Fenton's process, 96.8% of COD has been achieved

  • (ii)

    A stronger COD reduction (99.3%) with the combined system

 
Lucas & Peres (2009a, 2009b)  
Fenton's process Acid cracking (AC) + lime + anionic/cationic polyelectrolyte (AP, CP) pH: 1.7–9.2
[Fe2+]: 2.5, 5 and 10 g/L
[H2O2]: 750 mg/L 
  • (i)

    The pre-treatment by AC, AC + AP (5 ppm), AC + AP (10 ppm), lime and lime +AP (9 ppm) leads to a reduction of 72.5, 81.17, 73.85, 56.32 and 41.83% of COD, respectively

  • (ii)

    Fenton's oxidation after AC and CP (10 ppm) treatment leads to 89% of COD removal

 
Gomec et al. (2007)  
Fenton's process Acid cracking (AC) + coagulation pH: 1.5–3.5
treatment time: 4 h
Temperature: 25 and 30 °C
[H2O2] = 0.12–0.5 M
[Fe2+] = 0.005–0.03 M 
  • (i)

    AC removes 47.3, 30.1, 64.3, and 59.1% of COD, TPh, color, and aromaticity, respectively

  • (ii)

    AC and Fenton process lead to 83, 98.6, 77, and 67% of COD, TPh, color and aromaticity, respectively

  • (iii)

    The increase in temperature from 25 to 30 °C does not have a significant influence on the efficiency of the process

 
Madani et al. (2015)  
Fenton's process Ion exchange (IE) pH: 1.5–4.5
[Fe2+]: 0–5 g/L
[H2O2]: 0–6 g/L 
  • (iv) In the Fenton's process, 80.7 and 98.2% of COD and TPh have been removed, respectively

  • (v) The tested resin Lewatit TP 207 shows a higher affinity (100% of iron removal efficiency) toward Fe3+ when compared with Fe2+ (35%)

 
Reis et al. (2018)  
Photo-Fenton process Coagulation-flocculation and solvent extraction pH: 3
Treatment time: 240 min
[FeSO4, 7H2O]: 3.33, 5 and 6.67 g/L
FLOCAN 23: 0.287, 0.07 and 0.14
[H2O2]: 0, 3, 4, 5 and 6 g/L
[Fe2+]: 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/L 
  • (i)

    The coagulation-flocculation leads to 97 ± 1.3, 72 ± 1.5, and 40 ± 1.3% of TSS, COD and TPh, respectively

  • (ii)

    36% of TPh recovery post-coagulation–flocculation was achieved by solvent extraction

  • (iii)

    73 ± 2.3 and 87 ± 3.1% removal efficiencies were achieved for COD and TPh, respectively, by combination with photo-Fenton process

 
Papaphilippou et al. (2013)  
Fenton like process Coagulation and acid cracking (AC) pH: 1.5–4
Treatment time: 0–400 min
Alum concentration: 1000–6000 mg/L
Ferric chloride concentration : 1000–6000 mg/L
Polyaluminum chloride concentration: 250–1500 mg/L
[H2O2]: 250–3000 mg/L
Zero valent iron concentration: 1–11 g/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation process removed 91.2% COD, 91.3% TPh, 98.9% TSS and 99.2% turbidity

  • (ii)

    The combined process increased the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.14 to 0.83

 
Yazdanbakhsh et al. (2015)  
Photocatalysis,
Fenton and photo-Fenton process 
Coagulation pH: 4.3–6
Treatment time: 1–2 h
[H2O2]/[FeSO4] ratio = 6000/600
and 15,000/1,852 (w/w)
Coagulant dose: 0–600 mg/L 
  • (i)

    Coagulation by chitosan was shown to remove 81% of TSS

  • (ii)

    The combined photo-Fenton/coagulation system was found to be more efficient for COD removal (91%) compared to Fenton one (81%)

 
Rizzo et al. (2008)  
Photo-Fenton
Fenton process 
Acidification/coagulation/flocculation pH: 2.6 and 4.6
[H2O2]: 0, 15 and 30 g/L
[Fe2+]: 0, 2, 6 and 10 Mm
Coagulant dose: 0, 0.25 and 1 (w/w) 
  • (i)

    The acidification followed by Fenton process leads to 15 and 60% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

  • (ii)

    The acidification/coagulation/flocculation/Photo-Fenton system leads to 75 and 100% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

 
Gernjak et al. (2007)  
Ozonation
Photo-Fenton process (Fe(III)/air/solar light 
Centrifugation pH: 3
Treatment time: 60, 90 and 120 min
Flow-rate: 36 L/h 
  • (i)

    The pre-treatment by centrifugation leads to a reduction of 41.3% of COD

  • (ii)

    Ozonation alone leads to 31.5 and 63.6% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

  • (iii)

    Air/light with Fe(III)/Ozonation system leads to 40.3 and 75% of COD and TPh removal, respectively

 
Andreozzi et al. (2008)  
UV/H2O2 Lime treatment pH: 7
Temperature: 25 °C
Treatment time: 7 days
H2O2 (30%) doses: 1–10 mL/100 mL OMW 
  • (i)

    90% of color, 90% of phenol and 30% of lignin were removed by single UV/H2O2

  • (ii)

    The combination with lime yielded 99, 100 and 40% of color, phenol and lignin removals, respectively

 
Uğurlu & Kula (2007)  
UV/H2O2 Ultrafiltration (UF) pH: 4.5
Temperature: 27–37 °C
[H2O2] = 2*10–2
  • (i)

    94 and 100% of COD and TSS removal by using UF alone

  • (ii)

    In the combined process, 75% of the initial absorbance vanished after 40 min of irradiation

 
Drouiche et al. (2004)  
H2O2/UV
O3/UV 
Acid cracking (AC) + ferric coagulation pH: 2–8
Treatment time: 400–1,440 min
[H2O2]: 750 mg/L
Ozone flow-rate: 0.3 g/h 
  • (i)

    For acid cracking + ferric coagulation + O3/UV system, 98 and 99% of COD and TPh removal have been reached, respectively

  • (ii)

    For acid cracking + ferric coagulation H2O2/UV system, 99% of both COD and TPh removal has been reached

 
Kestioğlu et al. (2005)  
UV, O3, O3/UV and H2O2/UV

 
Coagulation/flocculation pH: 5.6–9
Treatment time: 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min
[H2O2]: 2%
Ozone flow-rate: 40 dm3/h 
  • (i)

    Over 10, 19, 37 and 39% of COD were removed by UV, O3, O3/UV and H2O2/UV process

  • (ii)

    The combined systems coagulation/O3, coagulation/O3-UV and coagulation/H2O2/UV lead to COD reduction rates of 90, 95 and 94%, respectively

 
Lafi et al. (2010)  
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