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Table 1

Household characteristics in Indonesia

VariableNumber%
Primary water fetcher in the household (dependent variable) 
 Adult men (≥15 years old)  63,268 54.83 
 Adult women (≥15 years old)  48,812 42.30 
 Female children (<15 years old)  1,806 1.57 
 Male child (<15 years old)  1,506 1.31 
Region of residence 
 Sumatra  32,562 28.22 
 Java and Bali  31,346 27.16 
 Nusatenggara  10,762 9.33 
 Kalimantan  11,332 9.82 
 Sulawesi  14,935 12.94 
 Maluku  5,222 4.53 
 Papua  9,233 8.00 
Place of residence 
 Urban area  42,100 36.48 
 Rural area  73,292 63.52 
Reside in a slum area 
 No  92,292 79.98 
 Yes  23,100 20.02 
Drinking water source 
 Unimproved  54,716 47.42 
 Improved  53,277 46.17 
 Piped  7,399 6.41 
Sanitation facility 
 None/open defecation  47,531 41.19 
 Unimproved  15,840 13.73 
 Improved  52,021 45.08 
Time required to fetch water 
  <6 minutes  53,005 45.93 
 6–30 minutes  56,304 48.79 
 31–60 minutes  4,576 3.97 
  >60 minutes  1,507 1.31 
Education of household head 
 None  31,499 27.30 
 Elementary school  37,814 32.77 
 Junior high school  17,280 14.98 
 Senior high school  22,240 19.27 
 College or higher  6,559 5.68 
Household head is working 
 No  14,183 12.29 
 Yes  101,209 87.71 
Sex of household head 
 Male  99,152 85.93 
 Female  16,240 14.07 
Age of household head 
 10–29 years  8,777 7.61 
 30–49 years  61,378 53.19 
 50–69 years  37,568 32.56 
 70+ years  7,669 6.65 
Marital status of household head 
 Married/cohabiting  97,599 84.58 
 Never married  2,870 2.49 
 Divorced/separated/widowed  14,923 12.93 
Number of under 5 children 
 None  84,453 73.19 
 One  26,047 22.57 
 Two or more  4,892 4.24 
Variable Mean (SD) Min Max 
Number of household members 3.78 (1.65) 1.00 19.00 
Household wealth index 0.00 (1.34) −2.36 3.79 
VariableNumber%
Primary water fetcher in the household (dependent variable) 
 Adult men (≥15 years old)  63,268 54.83 
 Adult women (≥15 years old)  48,812 42.30 
 Female children (<15 years old)  1,806 1.57 
 Male child (<15 years old)  1,506 1.31 
Region of residence 
 Sumatra  32,562 28.22 
 Java and Bali  31,346 27.16 
 Nusatenggara  10,762 9.33 
 Kalimantan  11,332 9.82 
 Sulawesi  14,935 12.94 
 Maluku  5,222 4.53 
 Papua  9,233 8.00 
Place of residence 
 Urban area  42,100 36.48 
 Rural area  73,292 63.52 
Reside in a slum area 
 No  92,292 79.98 
 Yes  23,100 20.02 
Drinking water source 
 Unimproved  54,716 47.42 
 Improved  53,277 46.17 
 Piped  7,399 6.41 
Sanitation facility 
 None/open defecation  47,531 41.19 
 Unimproved  15,840 13.73 
 Improved  52,021 45.08 
Time required to fetch water 
  <6 minutes  53,005 45.93 
 6–30 minutes  56,304 48.79 
 31–60 minutes  4,576 3.97 
  >60 minutes  1,507 1.31 
Education of household head 
 None  31,499 27.30 
 Elementary school  37,814 32.77 
 Junior high school  17,280 14.98 
 Senior high school  22,240 19.27 
 College or higher  6,559 5.68 
Household head is working 
 No  14,183 12.29 
 Yes  101,209 87.71 
Sex of household head 
 Male  99,152 85.93 
 Female  16,240 14.07 
Age of household head 
 10–29 years  8,777 7.61 
 30–49 years  61,378 53.19 
 50–69 years  37,568 32.56 
 70+ years  7,669 6.65 
Marital status of household head 
 Married/cohabiting  97,599 84.58 
 Never married  2,870 2.49 
 Divorced/separated/widowed  14,923 12.93 
Number of under 5 children 
 None  84,453 73.19 
 One  26,047 22.57 
 Two or more  4,892 4.24 
Variable Mean (SD) Min Max 
Number of household members 3.78 (1.65) 1.00 19.00 
Household wealth index 0.00 (1.34) −2.36 3.79 

Source: Authors' calculation of the 2013 Riskesdas data.

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