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Table 2

Potential strategies that incorporate cultural values and norms to facilitate sanitation uptake and sustainability for the case study area

Targeted factorsPotential strategiesValues/Norms
Modifying perceived risk to acceptance Beliefs regarding harmony between humans and humans can be used to increase the importance of avoiding conflict because spreading excreta can harm/offend others (increasing risk of OD) 
Beliefs of harmony between humans and environment can be used to increase the importance of protecting the cleanliness of environment and avoiding disturbance of surrounding spirits (increase risk and barrier for OD) H/P 
Purity concept of the self could be used to expand the purity definition to include physical hygiene, to maintain purity and reduce harm 
Strategy to leverage priority for sanitation Adjusting time for starting sanitation programme, consulting with local adat leaders and village leader on time period when people's resources are not needed for major ceremonies P/R 
Strategies to reduce perceived barriers to, and perceived risks of, construction Use Tri Mandala concept of space in developing household understanding of their specific context in locating their toilet 
Encouraging community to consult with local traditional healers if there are difficulties of space availability or appropriateness P/R 
Strategy to anticipate perceived risk of utilisation Ensuring no perceived pollution risk from sharing a toilet in targeted households and or community, before suggesting shared toilets 
Strategy to anticipate perceived risk of waste treatment Providing alternatives of sustainable sanitation solution that have less/no contact with human excreta in the treatment process. Explore the extent of tolerance towards using the final product in agriculture 
Proper involvement of whole community Using Tri Hita Karana principles to encourage adat communities to see sanitation issue as public issue and adat responsibility, in order to achieve collective action for sanitation improvement. There is a possible synergy with the scheme of Village with Environmental Awareness H/R 
Women are a trusted source of information regarding types of offerings in ceremonies, but not for toilet-related information, if division of roles is strict; do not force a community to have women cadres in sanitation programme 
Build rapport and gain support from traditional healers to assist community in reducing risk of wrongly placed toilet 
Targeted factorsPotential strategiesValues/Norms
Modifying perceived risk to acceptance Beliefs regarding harmony between humans and humans can be used to increase the importance of avoiding conflict because spreading excreta can harm/offend others (increasing risk of OD) 
Beliefs of harmony between humans and environment can be used to increase the importance of protecting the cleanliness of environment and avoiding disturbance of surrounding spirits (increase risk and barrier for OD) H/P 
Purity concept of the self could be used to expand the purity definition to include physical hygiene, to maintain purity and reduce harm 
Strategy to leverage priority for sanitation Adjusting time for starting sanitation programme, consulting with local adat leaders and village leader on time period when people's resources are not needed for major ceremonies P/R 
Strategies to reduce perceived barriers to, and perceived risks of, construction Use Tri Mandala concept of space in developing household understanding of their specific context in locating their toilet 
Encouraging community to consult with local traditional healers if there are difficulties of space availability or appropriateness P/R 
Strategy to anticipate perceived risk of utilisation Ensuring no perceived pollution risk from sharing a toilet in targeted households and or community, before suggesting shared toilets 
Strategy to anticipate perceived risk of waste treatment Providing alternatives of sustainable sanitation solution that have less/no contact with human excreta in the treatment process. Explore the extent of tolerance towards using the final product in agriculture 
Proper involvement of whole community Using Tri Hita Karana principles to encourage adat communities to see sanitation issue as public issue and adat responsibility, in order to achieve collective action for sanitation improvement. There is a possible synergy with the scheme of Village with Environmental Awareness H/R 
Women are a trusted source of information regarding types of offerings in ceremonies, but not for toilet-related information, if division of roles is strict; do not force a community to have women cadres in sanitation programme 
Build rapport and gain support from traditional healers to assist community in reducing risk of wrongly placed toilet 

Notes: Cultural values/norm.

H, Harmony and balance; P, Purity/pollution; R, Role defined by culture.

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