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Table 1

Overview of the classification of WASH indicators in the NUHDSS

ImprovedUnimproved
Drinking water source 
  • Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard

  • Public tap/standpipe

  • Tube well/borehole

  • Protected dug well with hand pump

  • Protected spring

  • Rainwater collection from the roof

 
  • Unprotected dug well

  • Unprotected spring

  • Small water vendor (cart with small tank or drum)

  • Bottled water

  • Tanker truck

  • Rainwater collection from surface run-off. Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal and irrigation channels)

  • Protected dug well with bucket

 
Toilet facility type 
  • Flush/pour flush to the piped sewer system or septic tank or pit latrine

  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine

  • Pit latrine with slab

  • Composting toilet

 
  • Flush/pour flush to elsewhere, for example, to open drain

  • Pit latrine without slab (slab with holes)/open pit

  • Bucket

  • Hanging toilet/hanging latrine

  • No facilities or bush or field

 
Garbage disposal method 
  • Garbage dump

  • Private pits

  • Public pits

  • Proper garbage disposal services

  • Other organized groups such as the national youth service

 
  • In the river

  • On the road, railway line/station

  • In drainage/sewage/trench

  • Vacant/abandoned house/plot/field

  • No designated place/all over

  • Street boys/urchins

  • Burning

  • Other

 
ImprovedUnimproved
Drinking water source 
  • Piped water into dwelling, plot or yard

  • Public tap/standpipe

  • Tube well/borehole

  • Protected dug well with hand pump

  • Protected spring

  • Rainwater collection from the roof

 
  • Unprotected dug well

  • Unprotected spring

  • Small water vendor (cart with small tank or drum)

  • Bottled water

  • Tanker truck

  • Rainwater collection from surface run-off. Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal and irrigation channels)

  • Protected dug well with bucket

 
Toilet facility type 
  • Flush/pour flush to the piped sewer system or septic tank or pit latrine

  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine

  • Pit latrine with slab

  • Composting toilet

 
  • Flush/pour flush to elsewhere, for example, to open drain

  • Pit latrine without slab (slab with holes)/open pit

  • Bucket

  • Hanging toilet/hanging latrine

  • No facilities or bush or field

 
Garbage disposal method 
  • Garbage dump

  • Private pits

  • Public pits

  • Proper garbage disposal services

  • Other organized groups such as the national youth service

 
  • In the river

  • On the road, railway line/station

  • In drainage/sewage/trench

  • Vacant/abandoned house/plot/field

  • No designated place/all over

  • Street boys/urchins

  • Burning

  • Other

 

Note: Adapted from Yu et al. (2016).

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