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Table 3

Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all three WASH outcomes

VariableWater source
Toilet facility
Garbage disposal
OR (95% CI)P-valueOR (95% CI)P-valueOR (95% CI)P-value
Year 
 2003 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 2004 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 0.439 2.20 (1.81–2.68) <.0001 0.80 (0.72–0.89) <.0001 
 2005 1.02 (0.80–1.31) 0.865 3.70 (3.08–4.45) <.0001 0.65 (0.59–0.71) <.0001 
 2006 0.90 (0.35–2.27) 0.816 7.29 (4.03–13.21) <.0001 3.92 (2.14–7.17) <.0001 
 2007 0.32 (0.13–0.82) 0.017 6.29 (3.47–11.39) <.0001 3.72 (2.03–6.80) <.0001 
 2008 0.40 (0.16–1.02) 0.055 5.38 (2.96–9.75) <.0001 3.12 (1.70–5.71) <.0001 
 2009 0.43 (0.17–1.08) 0.072 4.35 (2.40–7.89) <.0001 3.52 (1.93–6.45) <.0001 
 2010 0.13 (0.05–0.33) <.0001 5.25 (2.89–9.51) <.0001 14.73 (8.05–26.95) <.0001 
 2011 0.14 (0.05–0.34) <.0001 6.38 (3.52–11.57) <.0001 17.55 (9.59–32.12) <.0001 
 2012 0.12 (0.05–0.31) <.0001 8.32 (4.59–15.09) <.0001 16.65 (9.1–30.47) <.0001 
 2013 0.19 (0.08–0.49) 0.001 10.62 (5.86–19.25) <.0001 16.26 (8.88–29.75) <.0001 
 2014 0.11 (0.04–0.28) <.0001 9.65 (5.33–17.50) <.0001 17.98 (9.82–32.91) <.0001 
 2015 0.06 (0.02–0.15) <.0001 11.24 (6.20–20.38) <.0001 18.71 (10.22–34.25) <.0001 
Slum area 
 Korogocho 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Viwandani 0.18 (0.17–0.19) <.0001 0.94 (0.90–0.97) 0.001 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.002 
Gender of household head 
 Female 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Male 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 0.358 1.08 (1.04–1.12) <.0001 0.92 (0.89–0.95) <.0001 
Age of household head (years) 1.003 (1.001–1.005) 0.002 0.995 (0.993–0.996) <.0001 0.997 (0.996–0.998) <.0001 
Household size 1.02 (1.02–1.03) <.0001 0.99 (0.99–1.00) <.0001 1.01 (1.00–1.01) <.0001 
Ethnicity of household head 
 Kikuyu 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Luhya 1.11 (1.04–1.19) 0.002 1.2 (1.14–1.26) <.0001 1.13 (1.09–1.18) <.0001 
 Luo 0.88 (0.82–0.96) 0.002 1.49 (1.42–1.57) <.0001 1.08 (1.03–1.12) 0.001 
 Kamba 0.94 (0.90–0.99) 0.020 1.21 (1.16–1.26) <.0001 1.04 (1–1.07) 0.027 
 Kisii 2.32 (2.11–2.55) <.0001 1.57 (1.47–1.67) <.0001 1.16 (1.1–1.22) <.0001 
 Somali 3.50 (2.87–4.26) <.0001 1.27 (1.18–1.36) <.0001 1.80 (1.68–1.93) <.0001 
 Other 1.52 (1.27–1.83) <.0001 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 0.959 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 0.059 
Hunger scale 
 Food secure 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Mildly food insecure 1.11 (1.05–1.17) 0.001 1.27 (1.21–1.32) <.0001 0.85 (0.82–0.88) <.0001 
 Moderately food insecure 0.61 (0.59–0.64) <.0001 1.42 (1.36–1.47) <.0001 1.39 (1.35–1.43) <.0001 
 Severely food insecure 0.58 (0.56–0.61) <.0001 2.52 (2.44–2.61) <.0001 0.77 (0.75–0.79) <.0001 
 Don't know 0.64 (0.26–1.58) 0.337 1.70 (0.96–3.00) 0.066 2.71 (1.49–4.92) 0.001 
Wealth tertile 
 Lowest 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Middle 0.50 (0.48–0.53) <.0001 0.72 (0.7–0.75) <.0001 1.53 (1.50–1.57) <.0001 
 Highest 0.37 (0.35–0.39) <.0001 0.84 (0.81–0.87) <.0001 2.21 (2.16–2.28) <.0001 
VariableWater source
Toilet facility
Garbage disposal
OR (95% CI)P-valueOR (95% CI)P-valueOR (95% CI)P-value
Year 
 2003 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 2004 0.89 (0.67–1.19) 0.439 2.20 (1.81–2.68) <.0001 0.80 (0.72–0.89) <.0001 
 2005 1.02 (0.80–1.31) 0.865 3.70 (3.08–4.45) <.0001 0.65 (0.59–0.71) <.0001 
 2006 0.90 (0.35–2.27) 0.816 7.29 (4.03–13.21) <.0001 3.92 (2.14–7.17) <.0001 
 2007 0.32 (0.13–0.82) 0.017 6.29 (3.47–11.39) <.0001 3.72 (2.03–6.80) <.0001 
 2008 0.40 (0.16–1.02) 0.055 5.38 (2.96–9.75) <.0001 3.12 (1.70–5.71) <.0001 
 2009 0.43 (0.17–1.08) 0.072 4.35 (2.40–7.89) <.0001 3.52 (1.93–6.45) <.0001 
 2010 0.13 (0.05–0.33) <.0001 5.25 (2.89–9.51) <.0001 14.73 (8.05–26.95) <.0001 
 2011 0.14 (0.05–0.34) <.0001 6.38 (3.52–11.57) <.0001 17.55 (9.59–32.12) <.0001 
 2012 0.12 (0.05–0.31) <.0001 8.32 (4.59–15.09) <.0001 16.65 (9.1–30.47) <.0001 
 2013 0.19 (0.08–0.49) 0.001 10.62 (5.86–19.25) <.0001 16.26 (8.88–29.75) <.0001 
 2014 0.11 (0.04–0.28) <.0001 9.65 (5.33–17.50) <.0001 17.98 (9.82–32.91) <.0001 
 2015 0.06 (0.02–0.15) <.0001 11.24 (6.20–20.38) <.0001 18.71 (10.22–34.25) <.0001 
Slum area 
 Korogocho 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Viwandani 0.18 (0.17–0.19) <.0001 0.94 (0.90–0.97) 0.001 0.95 (0.92–0.98) 0.002 
Gender of household head 
 Female 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Male 1.02 (0.97–1.08) 0.358 1.08 (1.04–1.12) <.0001 0.92 (0.89–0.95) <.0001 
Age of household head (years) 1.003 (1.001–1.005) 0.002 0.995 (0.993–0.996) <.0001 0.997 (0.996–0.998) <.0001 
Household size 1.02 (1.02–1.03) <.0001 0.99 (0.99–1.00) <.0001 1.01 (1.00–1.01) <.0001 
Ethnicity of household head 
 Kikuyu 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Luhya 1.11 (1.04–1.19) 0.002 1.2 (1.14–1.26) <.0001 1.13 (1.09–1.18) <.0001 
 Luo 0.88 (0.82–0.96) 0.002 1.49 (1.42–1.57) <.0001 1.08 (1.03–1.12) 0.001 
 Kamba 0.94 (0.90–0.99) 0.020 1.21 (1.16–1.26) <.0001 1.04 (1–1.07) 0.027 
 Kisii 2.32 (2.11–2.55) <.0001 1.57 (1.47–1.67) <.0001 1.16 (1.1–1.22) <.0001 
 Somali 3.50 (2.87–4.26) <.0001 1.27 (1.18–1.36) <.0001 1.80 (1.68–1.93) <.0001 
 Other 1.52 (1.27–1.83) <.0001 1.00 (0.88–1.13) 0.959 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 0.059 
Hunger scale 
 Food secure 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Mildly food insecure 1.11 (1.05–1.17) 0.001 1.27 (1.21–1.32) <.0001 0.85 (0.82–0.88) <.0001 
 Moderately food insecure 0.61 (0.59–0.64) <.0001 1.42 (1.36–1.47) <.0001 1.39 (1.35–1.43) <.0001 
 Severely food insecure 0.58 (0.56–0.61) <.0001 2.52 (2.44–2.61) <.0001 0.77 (0.75–0.79) <.0001 
 Don't know 0.64 (0.26–1.58) 0.337 1.70 (0.96–3.00) 0.066 2.71 (1.49–4.92) 0.001 
Wealth tertile 
 Lowest 1.00  1.00  1.00  
 Middle 0.50 (0.48–0.53) <.0001 0.72 (0.7–0.75) <.0001 1.53 (1.50–1.57) <.0001 
 Highest 0.37 (0.35–0.39) <.0001 0.84 (0.81–0.87) <.0001 2.21 (2.16–2.28) <.0001 
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