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Table 1

The main policy and strategy documents for sanitation in Ghana

Policy and strategiesKey points
Environmental Sanitation Policy (MLGRD 2010) Covers all aspects of environmental sanitation, including solid waste, liquid waste, excreta, industrial wastes, health-care, and other hazardous wastes 
Recognizes the need to provide inclusive sanitation services, especially to protect the vulnerable, women, and children 
Allocates responsibilities between ministries and local governments 
Promotes private sector participation (PSP) and NGOs' involvement in the delivery of sanitation services 
Acknowledges the challenge of urban sanitation (including excreta management, referred to as ‘liquid waste’) and the lack of planning 
Makes households responsible for financing their own household facilities 
National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (MLGRD & EHSD 2010) Recognizes that communal and public facilities will continue to be an important aspect of excreta management for some time to come 
Proposes franchising the management of public toilets and the provision of cesspit emptying services by private operators 
Recognizes the need for appropriate low-cost treatment and disposal facilities for faecal sludge 
Strategic Environmental Sanitation Investment Plan (adapted from WSUP (2017)) Provides a financing plan for implementing the NESSAP 
Proposes an increase in the annual allocation of the DACF to MMDAs to fund their financing gaps (from 7.5% to 15%) and ‘ring-fencing’ the amount for environmental sanitation (including solid waste) programmes 
Proposes the establishment of a national revolving fund for household sanitation to be managed by microfinance institutions 
Policy and strategiesKey points
Environmental Sanitation Policy (MLGRD 2010) Covers all aspects of environmental sanitation, including solid waste, liquid waste, excreta, industrial wastes, health-care, and other hazardous wastes 
Recognizes the need to provide inclusive sanitation services, especially to protect the vulnerable, women, and children 
Allocates responsibilities between ministries and local governments 
Promotes private sector participation (PSP) and NGOs' involvement in the delivery of sanitation services 
Acknowledges the challenge of urban sanitation (including excreta management, referred to as ‘liquid waste’) and the lack of planning 
Makes households responsible for financing their own household facilities 
National Environmental Sanitation Strategy and Action Plan (MLGRD & EHSD 2010) Recognizes that communal and public facilities will continue to be an important aspect of excreta management for some time to come 
Proposes franchising the management of public toilets and the provision of cesspit emptying services by private operators 
Recognizes the need for appropriate low-cost treatment and disposal facilities for faecal sludge 
Strategic Environmental Sanitation Investment Plan (adapted from WSUP (2017)) Provides a financing plan for implementing the NESSAP 
Proposes an increase in the annual allocation of the DACF to MMDAs to fund their financing gaps (from 7.5% to 15%) and ‘ring-fencing’ the amount for environmental sanitation (including solid waste) programmes 
Proposes the establishment of a national revolving fund for household sanitation to be managed by microfinance institutions 

Source: adapted from WSUP (2017).

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