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Table 2

Results of GEE analysis assessing the association between the source of piped water and diarrhoea among children under 5 years in rural Vanuatu

Source of piped waterUnadjusted
Adjusteda
Odds ratio95% CIp-valueOdds ratio95% CIp-value
Spring vs. borehole 3.6 0.53–24 0.189 5.8 1.1–31 0.040 
Surface water vs. borehole 1.8 0.328–12 0.537 2.7 0.52–14 0.234 
Surface water vs. spring 0.50 0.20–1.2 0.136 0.5 0.20–1.1 0.081 
Source of piped waterUnadjusted
Adjusteda
Odds ratio95% CIp-valueOdds ratio95% CIp-value
Spring vs. borehole 3.6 0.53–24 0.189 5.8 1.1–31 0.040 
Surface water vs. borehole 1.8 0.328–12 0.537 2.7 0.52–14 0.234 
Surface water vs. spring 0.50 0.20–1.2 0.136 0.5 0.20–1.1 0.081 

CI, confidence interval.

Bold figures indicate statistically significant result.

aAdjusted GEE analysis adjusts for household wealth, sanitation facility, point-of-use water treatment practices, presence of handwashing facilities with soap and water, age of child, age of piped water infrastructure, mother's education, village-wide open defaecation rate, and breastfeeding practices.

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